Many questions can arise on a daily basis regarding the halachos and parameters of tefilla b’tzibur. In this issue we will discuss many of these items.
Importance and Benefits of Tefilla B’tzibur
The Meiri says one should always daven in a shul because one is able to have kavana there. When one davens with a minyan the shechina is present, and his tefilla is accepted together with the tzibur even if his tefilla alone was not a good tefilla. The Gemorah in Berochos says the most preferred method to daven is with a tzibur. One who has a shul in his neighborhood and does not go is called a bad neighbor, and it causes gulos for him and his children. Today with the many shuls on every block it is very easy to go to shul to daven. Hashem is not disgusted by the tefilla of a tzibur even if there is a sinner among those who are davening. Some say one should fine those people who do not want to come to shul to daven with a minyan. When one davens with a minyan he is mekadesh the name of Hashem. One should try not to miss a minyan, since it is of utmost importance.
Others Reasons to Daven with a Minyan
The Chofetz Chaim lists many reasons why one should daven with a minyan. We will mention some of them. 1. One receives reward for just going to shul. 2. People will learn from you and then they will also come to shul 3. One is able to daven krias shema and shemonei esrei with a minyan 4. When a minyan davens it is an eis ratzon 5. One has the opportunity to answer to kaddish and borchu. 6. On Monday and Thursday one has the merit of listening to krias ha’Torah. 7. One is able to train his children to daven with aminyan.
Obligation vs. Non-Obligation
Davening with a minyan is not just a nice thing to do. It is an obligation upon every male (above the age of thirteen) to daven with a minyan every single day of his life.According to many poskim this obligation is d’rabbanan in nature, and is a very big mitzvah. The Shulchan Hatohar says anyone with trace of yiddishkeit should davenwith a minyan. Although the Shulchan Aruch says one should “try” to daven with a minyan, the poskim say this does not mean to say that davening with a minyan is not an obligation.
What is Considered Tefilla B’tzibur ?
There is a discussion among the poskim what is considered tefilla b’tzibur. Many poskim are of the opinion that one has to start davening shemonei esrei exactly at the same time the shatz starts his quiet shemonei esrei. Others say since people do not daven at the same speed, one may start even later than the shatz. Some say one may even start davening if the tzibur is up to magen avraham and others say most of the shemonei esrei should be undavened by the tzibur before starting shemonei esrei. One who did not start shemonei esrei together with the tzibur but finished with the tzibur is considered to have davened that tefilla with a minyan. Many times one who is running late walks into shul when the tzibur is about to start chazaras hashatz. The question arises if one is permitted to start in order for his shemonei esrei to be considered davening with the shatz and considered tefilla b’tzibur. Many poskim are of the opinion that it is considered tefilla b’tzibur. At certain times the Chofetz Chaim davened his quiet shemonei esrei with the shatz. Some even say that this is the true tefilla b’tzibur. Others question this and maintain that this is not considered tefilla b’tzibur, however it is advisable to do so in such a situation because he will say kedusha and modim with the tzibur. One who has no other minyan to daven at may daven in this fashion. Manyposkim say that l’chatchilah one should start his quiet shemonei esrei with the shatz.
Davening a Different Tefilla than the Tzibur
According to many poskim one who is davening shacharis etc while the tzibur is davening mussaf is not considered to have davened with a tzibur.
Six or Ten
It is very common that one finds himself in a situation where there will not be ten people starting shemonei esrei at the same time and one wonders if he is actually daveningwith a tzibur.
Most poskim maintain that as long as six people are davening together even if the other four people are in middle of a different part of davening or have davened already thetefilla is considered to be b’tzibur. Other poskim say that a minimum of ten people davening together is required for the tefilla to be considered b’tzibur. Based on this, one who finds himself in a place where there will be only six mispallalem may daven with them.
Some people say to themselves, “I want to daven with a minyan, but the minyan goes too fast, so instead I will daven by myself in shul at the same time that another minyan is going on.” Although there are poskim who say that doing this is permitted, this is only for very special people, and one should not do so unless he gets a pesak from his Rav.
Starting Before the Tzibur
Generally one who is davening with a minyan may not start shemonei esrei before the tzibur. However, one may do so if he feels that by starting before the tzibur he willdaven better because he has more time to concentrate. Additionally, one who is sick and wants to start before the tzibur may do so.
Staying Up Late
Even one who is diligent in his learning should not learn too late at night if doing so will cause him to miss out on tefilla b’tzibur the next day. This is very common with some bochurim who stay up learning on Thursday night and miss shacharis and seder the next morning.
Sick Person r”l
A sick person does not have to daven with a minyan. A sick person who always davened with a minyan before he became ill and now cannot daven with a minyan has the same merit as if he davened with a minyan in shul.
Came to Shul and everyone is in middle of Shemonei Esrei
Some times it can happen by mincha or maariv that one comes late and finds that the tzibur is davening shemonei esrei and he contemplates if he is allowed to start davening with the tzibur. One who cannot start and finish his shemonei esrei before the shatz reaches kedusha by mincha, or kaddish by maariv, should not start his quiet shemonei esrei. One who comes after the shatz said kedusha should only begin davening if he will finish his shemonei esrei before the shatz says modim.
Based on these halachos, the poskim ask how is it possible for some who daven slowly to start the quiet shemonei esrei since he knows that he will not finish before the shatz is up to kedusha or kaddish? However, this is not a concern at all because the above halacha is referring to someone who was not davening with the tzibur and now came late and saw the tzibur in middle of shemonei esrei. One who davens with the tzibur all along is permitted to start davening even if he will always finish after the shatz reacheskaddish or kedusha.
One Can’t Come to Shul
Traveling to a Place without a Minyan
Many people wish to plan vacations to remote locations which have no minyan, and the question arises if doing so is permitted. Davening with a minyan is an obligation, and not just a nice thing to do. By not davening with a minyan one misses out on answering amen, kaddish, and risks his tefilla not being heard by Hashem. Many poskim say one who is going to a remote location just for enjoyment may not go to a place that does not have a minyan. However, one may go to such a place for reasons of health,parnasa or for a mitzvah. One should not rely on this heter without consulting a Rav.
How Far to Travel For a Minyan
It can happen than late at night one is in his house and he reminds himself that he did not yet daven maariv. The question arises as to how far a distance is one obligated totravel to go daven with a minyan? One who is in middle of traveling (in middle of driving, etc) and knows of a shul within the amount of time it takes to walk four mil in front of him (72 minutes), or one mil behind him (18 minutes) is obligated to daven with that minyan. If the shul is to the side it has the same din as if it was behind him.One who is sitting in his house is only obligated to travel 18 minutes. One is not obligated to go to a minyan that is in a place of danger.
Skipping Pesukei D’zimra to Daven with a Minyan
In order to fulfill the mitzvah of tefilla b’tzibur, one is allowed to skip certain parts of pesukei d’zimra. (This is only where one’s tefillin are already on). However, some poskim say that pesukei d’zimra should always be said in its entirety and one should never skip even parts of it. Therefore, one should always try to come to shulearly enough to avoid having to skip any parts of pesukei d’zimra.
The most important part of pesukei d’zimra is Asheri. Pesukei D’zimra must also be preceded by boruch sh’omar and followed by yishtabach. One who has no time after reciting these three tefillos should start the berochos of krias shema with the tzibur.
Vayivorech Dovid until leshem t’pharteich.
Those who recite hodu after boruch sh’omar should say hodu until v’hu rachum which is found in middle of hodu. For those who recite boruch sh’omar after hodu, everything after boruch sh’omar takes precedence over hodu.
On Shabbos and Yom Tov, nishmas is added and it can not be left out. Therefore, boruch sh’omar, ashrei, nishmas and yishtabach must be recited. One who still has more time should follow the above outline. One who has more time should day lamnatzeach, then l’Dovid B’shanoso, then Tefilla L’Moshe followed by the other perakim.
Aside from saying certain parts of pesukei d’zimra in order to daven with a minyan one still has to say the beracha of al netiylas yudayim, birchos hatorah, and elokay nishoma.
After one has finished davening he should say the parts of pesukei d’zimra that he skipped. One who did not recite birchos hatorah and elokay nishoma before davening does not say it after davening. Some say one should not say hanosen l’sechvei vina etc after tefilla, while others argue with this. Additionally one who mistakenly skippedboruch sh’omar and yishtabach should not recite them after davening.
Even though one may skip parts of pesukei d’zimra in order to daven with a minyan, one should not say pesukei d’zimra fast for this purpose.
Skipping should only be done once in a while.
Skipping Parts of Mincha / Maariv
At mincha one may skip ashrei and daven shemonei esrei with the tzibur. At maariv one may skip the entire birchos krias shema and daven shemonei esrei with the tzibur, and say the parts he skipped after davening. Others say that it is better for one to daven by himself then to skip krias shema. The Mishnah Berurah says skipping should only be done if one will not find a later minyan.
 Mesechtas Berochos 6a.
 Refer to Mesechtas Berochos 6a, Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 8:1, Tur 90, Bais Yosef, Prisha 12, Machtzis Ha’shekel, Sharei Teshuva 90:3, Aruch Ha’shulchan 90:13, 15, Mishmeres Shalom 10:4, Yesod V’shoresh Hu’avodah shar ha’ashmuros 7:pages 136-137 (new). Others say one’s tefilla is heard if he davens by himself in a shul (Rosh Mesechtas Berochos 1:7, Rif, Bais Yosef, Bach).
 Refer to Medrash Rabbah Eicha on posuk 3:8.
 8a. One who davens with a tzibur is as if he was makriv a korbon mincha (Yerushalmi Mesechtas Berochos 1:1). The Meor V’shemesh Mishpatim page 94b says one who davens with a minyan will have an abundance of parnasa, see Kesav Sofer Eikev.
 Shulchan Aruch 90:11, Hatefilla B’tzibur page 20. One who davens in a house with a minyan is not considered a bad neighbor (Mishnah Berurah 90:38).
 Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 8:1, Mishnah Berurah 90:28.
 Elya Rabbah 90:10, Mishnah Berurah 90:29, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 12:2.
 Shulchan Aruch Harav 90:17.
 Sefer Shemiras Ha’loshon (Chasimas Hasefer) pages 320-327 (new print).
 Pri Sevua 2:68, Mishnah Berurah 90:28, Shraga Hameir 8:19:5, Orchos Yosher page 94, Rivevos Ephraim 2:48:86, 3:481:page 316, see Besamim Rosh 158 and Yad Eliyahu 6 who hold it is a hidur mitzvah. Refer to Yesod V’shoresh Hu’avoda shar ha’ason 2.
 Refer to Shulchan Aruch Harav 90:17, Aruch Ha’shulchan 90:21. See Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 1:1.
 Aruch Ha’shulchan 90:21. Refer to Meor V’shemesh ibid.
 Refer to Igros Moshe O.C. 2:27, 3:7, Minchas Yitzchok 7:6, Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:98, see Ohr L’tzyion 2:7:20.
 Refer to Magel 7:pages 85-89.
 Chai Adom 19:1, Mishmeres Shalom page 51, Orchos Rabbeinu 1:159:page 51, Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 8:7, Dinim V’hanhugos of the Chazzon Ish 4:5, Sharei Aron 3:page 152. Refer to Kovetz Bais Aron V’Yisorel 114:pages 149-150.
 Igros Moshe O.C. 3:4. See Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 8:footnote 8.
 Betzel Hachuchma 4:3, Opinion of Horav Elayshiv Shlita quoted in Avnei Yushfei Tefilla 6:footnote 24, Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 8:7. Refer to Be’er Moshe 4:11.
 Horav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Oz Nedberu 8:41:4, Yugel Yaakov page 246. Some say if one started his shemonei esrei when the shatz was at the end of chazaras hashatz it is not considered real tefilla b’tzibur(Orchos Rabbeinu 1:162:page 52, Mivakshei Torah 3:page 283).
 Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 109:2, Mishnah Berurah 66:35, Vayivorech Dovid 1:22:4.
 Refer to Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 8:34, Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 52:1, Eishel Avraham Butchatch 52, Eretz Tzvi 2:6, Chazzon Ish O.C. 19:7:page 54, Be’er Moshe 4:12, Betzel Hachuchma 4:3, Yabea Omer O.C. 2:7, Lehoros Nosson 3:3, Yechaveh Da’as 5:7, Tefilla K’hilchoso pages 536-538, Halacha Berurah 90:28. One who davens with the shatz his quiet shemonei esrei should say kedusha and every word of shemonei esreitogether with the shatz (Shulchan Aruch 109:2, Mishnah Berurah 90:14). Some say one who cannot concentrate well if he does that may daven by himself if he bows at modim with the shatz (Piskei Teshuvos 109:1:page 822). One should also say birchos hameshulash (birchos kohanim) with the shatz (Shevet Ha’levi 3:15:3).
 Dugmas M’darchei Avi 63:16:page 31, see Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:100, Dinim V’hanhugos of the Chazzon Ish 4:31.
 Eishel Avraham Butchatch ibid. Oz Nedberu 4:16, Yalkut Yosef 1:page 145:9.
 Horav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Chaveles Hashurin O.C. 2:page 4, Salams Chaim 130:page 41 (it is better than davening by yourself), Igros Moshe O.C. 3:9, Be’er Moshe 4:12, Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:100, Vayivorech Dovid 1:22:5, Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 8:41:footnote 64.
 Elya Rabbah 66:13, Eretz Tzvi 2:6, Mishnah Berurah 66:35, Orchos Rabbeinu 1:159:page 51.
 Magen Avraham 90:17, Elya Rabbah 10, Mishnah Berurah 30, Kaf Ha’chaim 90:63, Minchas Yitzchok 2:132, Orchos Rabbeinu 1:161:page 51.
 Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 8:4, Magen Avraham 69:4, Shulchan Aruch Harav 69:5, Mamer Mordechai 69:6, Machzei Avraham 2:9:1, Maharsham 1:9, Mishnah Berurah 90:28, Lekach Hakemach Hachodesh 69:10, Chelkes Yaakov 2:138:2, Minchas Elazar 2:77, Minchas Yitzchok 9:6, Yechaveh Da’as 5:7, Tefilla K’hilchoso 13:footnote 38, page 156:71, Vayivorech Dovid 1:22:3, Be’er Sarim 3:13, Oz Nedberu 2:57, Avnei Yushfei 5:13, Yalkut Yosef 1:page 145:8, Halacha Berurah 90:27, Kovetz Bais Aron V’yisroel 95:page 148, see Rivevos Ephraim 4:27:2. In all of Europe the custom was to rely on six people davening shemonei esrei at one time (Bais Avi 3:24, Kinyan Torah 4:5, see Bais Avi 4:2).
 Yad Eliyahu O.C. 7, Chai Adom 19:1, Salmas Chaim 119:page 37, Igros Moshe O.C. 1:28, 29, 30, Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:102 quoting the opinion of the Brisker Rav, 3:33, 4:36, Moadim V’zmanim 2:166:footnote 1, Orchos Rabbeinu 1:160:page 51 quoting the opinion of the Chazzon Ish, Lehoros Nosson 1:28, E’ven Yisroel 7:9. Refer to Kovetz Bais Aron V’yisroel 89:pages 74-76, 90:page 118:1, 93:page 106. This is the opinion of Horav Yisroel Belsky Shlita. Refer to G’rach on Shas pages 166-168. The opinion of the Mari Shteiff 279 is that you need 7 people for a minyan.
 However, one should not make this part of his life (Horav Yisroel Belsky Shlita).
 Pri Megadim M.Z. 101:1, Biur Halacha 101 “d’usi,” Toras Hayeshiva 3:1:footnote 1.
 Igros Moshe O.C. 3:7, Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:98, 2:63, Oz Nedberu 11:44:1, Tzitz Eliezer 14:5, (even at the Kosel), Rivevos Ephraim 5:122, 6:327:7, 8:436:29, Ohr L’tzyion 2:7:20, Piskei Teshuvos 90:9-8. Refer to Yesod V’shoresh Hu’avodah (shar ha’ashmoros 7).
 Refer to Birchos Avraham (Tefilla) page 252. Yeshiva boys who always daven in Yeshiva should continue this even if they wake up late and are forced to daven without a minyan (Halichos Shlomo Tefilla page 61:footnote 8, Derech Sicha page 540, see Oz Nedberu 14:38:page 78).
 Shulchan Aruch 90:10, Magen Avraham 20-21, Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 20, Mishnah Berurah 34.
 Mishemeres Shalom 10:6, Yabea Omer O.C. 2:7, see Be’er Moshe 4:9 where he permits starting early not to miss a kaddish. Refer to Lekach Hakemach Hachodesh 90:66.
 Shulchan Aruch Haraav 11, Aruch Ha’shulchan 14.
 Igros Moshe O.C. 2:27, Hatefilla B’tzibur page 52, Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 5:footnote 56, Rivevos Ephraim 4:27:13. Refer to Mishnah Berurah 90:29.
 Kaf Ha’chaim 90:56, Mishnah Berurah 90:29, Nishmas Avraham 90:footnote 2.
 Orchos Rabbeinu 1:157:page 50.
 Refer to Taz 109:1.
 Magen Avraham 109:1, Mishnah Berurah 2, 4.
 Shulchan Aruch 109:1, Levush 1.
 Mishnah Berurah 109:6. You also have to say the amen of the beracha of shomeya tefilla with the shatz (Mishnah Berurah 7).
 Biur Halacha 109 “hanichnas,” Aruch Ha’shulchan 5.
 Biur Halacha ibid, Aruch Ha’shulchan ibid, Shulchan Hatohar 52:3, Salmas Chaim 126, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:11:page 208, Oz Nedberu 8:41:1, Siach Tefilla pages 693-694, Piskei Teshuvos 109:1, Dinim V’hanhugos of the Chazzon Ish 4:22:page 43.
 Refer to Shulchan Aruch 90:10, Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 17, Kaf Ha’chaim 64.
 Rivevos Ephraim 7:page 222, Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 5:18, see ibid:footnote 29. Children under bar-mitzvah should daven in Yeshiva even if there is no minyan (Igros Moshe O.C. 5:6).
 Refer to Mesechtas Berochos 6a, 30a, Yevomos 49b, Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 8:1, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 90:10, 16, Mishnah Berurah 90:52, Igros Moshe O.C. 2:27, Orchos Yosher page 92. See Kovetz Ohr Yisroel 46:pages 75-88 in great detail. Refer to Besaim Rosh 158, Chavos Yuer 115 who seem to argue.
 Refer to footnote 11, see Mesechtas Berochos 6a, Teshuvos V’hanhugos 2:63, Vayivorech Dovid 2:168. One who does not daven with a minyan makes Hashem angry (Mesechtas Berochos 6b).
 Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 5:footnote 4, Tefilla K’hilchoso 8:5, Tefilla K’hilchoso page 358, Shevet Ha’Levi 6:21:3, Ishei Yisroel 12:2, Shevet Ha’kehusi 4:44:2, Piskei Teshuvos 1:page 90:22, Shraga Hameir 7:94:2, Halachos of the Country page 21, Shila D’kaita pages 14, 373-376, V’ihiy B’nsoa page 52, Modanei Yom Tov 1:pages 147-148. Refer to Divrei Malkiel 5:109. This is the opinion of Horav Yisroel Belsky Shlita.
 Refer to Hatefilla B’tzibur pages 54-55, Avnei Yushfei Tefilla page 74:footnote 7, Shraga Hameir 7:17.. Refer to Shol U’meishiv 1:3:103, Shevet Ha’Levi 9:37.
 Mesechtas Pesachim 46a, Chullin 122b, Shulchan Aruch 90:16, Levush 16, Kaf Ha’chaim 120. Refer to Igros Moshe O.C. 2:27, Rivevos Ephraim 4:27:1, Betzel Hachuchma 4:21. This is only if one is in a shul that there will be a minyan (Ketzos Ha’shulchan 13:2, Tefilla K’hilchoso 10:footnote 116).
 Elya Rabbah 19, Mishnah Berurah 50, Aruch Ha’shulchan 20, Kaf Ha’chaim 104.
 Mishnah Berrah 52.
 Shevet Ha’Levi 8:19.
 The Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 52:1 is unsure if one should skip in order to daven with a minyan or not skip and daven his shemonei esrei together with the shatz. The Halichos Shlomo 8:41 says to skip anddaven with the tzibur.
 Shulchan Aruch 52:1, Be’er Heitiv 1, Chucham Tzvi 36, Mishnah Berurah 52:3, Yechaveh Da’as 5:5, Sheilas Rav 2:3:page 164. Women can also skip pesukei d’zimra (Avnei Yushfei 16:6:footnote 12 quoting the opinions of Horav Elyashiv Shlita and Horav Wosner Shlita, see ibid:footnote 13 for a different view). One who is running late may skip certain parts of pesukei d’zimra if that will enable him to daven with a minyan. (Shulchan Aruch ibid, Rivevos Ephraim 8:167:page 91. The Igros Moshe O.C. 4:91:2 permits it if one has to teach children. In regard to skipping krias shema refer to Tehilla L’Dovid 52:1.
 Mishnah Berurah 52:2. Refer to Shulchan Aruch Harav 52:1.
 Be’er Heitiv 52:1, Kaf Ha’chaim 52:1-2.
 Mishnah Berurah 52:1.
 Rama 52:1, Mishnah Berurah 52:6.
 Shulchan Aruch 52:1, Mishnah Berurah 52:6, see Massei Rav 33.
 Shulchan Aruch 52:1, Aruch Ha’shulchan 52:7.
 Shulchan Aruch 52:1,
 Magen Avraham 52:1, Mishnah Berurah 52:4.
 Rama 52:1.
 Refer to Kaf Ha’chaim 52:3.
 Mishnah Berurah 52:5.
 Mishnah Berurah 52:5.
 Refer to Rama 52:1, Taz 52:1, Mishnah Berurah 52:2.
 Kesher Hagodol 5:10, Pe’as Sudcha 1:8, Bnei Bonim 3:page 196 and 209, Opinion of Horav Chaim Kanievesky Shlita quoted in Siach Tefilla page 689:21, opinion of Horav Aron Kotler zt”l quoted in Halichos Yisroel page 130:footnote 10, see Mishnah Berurah 52:9. The Machanei Yisroel 1:8 says one can be lenient for a solider. The Aruch Ha’shulchan 52:4-5 says it is better not to say the parts you skipped after davening. Some say if one said some of the mizmorim during davening he does not have to say the rest after davening, but it is proper to be stringent (Oz Nedberu 3:45:1, Bais Boruch 19:25). In a pressing situation one can be lenient and there is no need to repeat the part he missed after davening (Oz Nedberu ibid, Opinion of Horav Chaim Kanievesky Shlita quoted in Ishei Yisroel 16:footnote 56:page 158 new).
 Refer to Be’er Heitiv 52:6, Machtzis Ha’shekel 52:1, Pri Chadash 52, Kesher Hagodol ibid, Mishnah Berurah 52:9, Kaf Ha’chaim 5, Yechaveh Da’as 5:5.
 Aruch Ha’shulchan 52:8. There is an uncertainty if matir asurim should be recited after tefilla if one skipped it (Aruch Ha’shulchan ibid).
 Igros Moshe O.C. 5:20:12.
 Mishnah Berurah 52:8. One may skip boruch Hasem l’olom etc as well (Refer to Shearim Metzuyanim B’halacha 70:3, Rivevos V’yovlos 2:463, Kinyan Torah 2:141). One who will be saying krias shema after maarivshould recite boruch Hashem etc. as well (Lev Araham 39).
 Ketzos Ha’shulchan 18:badi 12.
 Sharei Teshuva 1, Orchos Yosher page 75. Opinion of Horav Moshe Feinstein zt”l quoted in Halichos Yisroel page 119.
 Refer to Ishei Yisroel 12:24.
 Shulchan Aruch 236:3, Mishnah Berurah 236:12, Rivevos Ephraim 1:178.
 Kaf Ha’chaim 236:22.