February 11, 2013 3:03 am at 3:03 am #608147
My new shul does mincha/mariv 20 minutes after shkia. Can someone pls explain where this ruling is from.February 11, 2013 3:33 am at 3:33 am #932895
There are shittos that hold of that later zman. (I believe it includes Rabbeinu Tam.)February 11, 2013 4:13 am at 4:13 am #932896
There are shittos that hold of that later zman. (I believe it includes Rabbeinu Tam.)
But seriously excludes the Mishno Beruro, who is incredibly emphatic about how critical it is to pray Mincho [Not just commencing but terminating the Amido] prior to sunset.
Yet please note however, that the Mishno Beruro makes no major issue about Maariv BiZemano V Early Maariv, nor of Schacharis before sunrise V Schacharis after sunrise.
Ordinarily, when confronted with 2 scenarios, 1 being with a Minjan but at a worse Zeman V a better Zeman b’Yechidus, praying at the Minjan always overrides the other preferable factor.
However:- 2 exceptions:- a) Mincho must be before sunset even B’Yechidus rather than with a Minjan after sunset; b) If someone is going on a long distance journey, even if he will reach his destination before the end of the Zeman of the current Tefiloh and be able to pray that current Tefilo at his destination with a Minjan, he must still pray that current Tefilo prior to setting off on his journey even if b’Yechidus.
However, even in the case of Friday Chanukah Mincho, it is better to pray with a Minjan after candle lighting than before candle lighting b’Yechidus.February 11, 2013 9:44 am at 9:44 am #932897
I used to daven at a shtieble where we’d daven mincha at the proper time, followed by ma’ariv. As we were leaving afterwards, another group was coming in to daven mincha.February 11, 2013 1:27 pm at 1:27 pm #932898
The Mishnah Brurah is the source for Litvaks (Misnagdim). If you hold by it, you probably should not go to a hasidic shul since they have different holdings, some of which result in davening later than misnagdim.February 11, 2013 1:45 pm at 1:45 pm #932899
The short answer is there aree two zmanim for shkia. The regular sunset is the usual shkia, but there is another time later, just before the geonim nacht called the second shkiah, which is generally held of by chasidish communities. Until just after the war they used this time for kabolas shabbos as well.
It is well known that the Satmar Rov Zt”l and Reb Aharon Kotler Zt”l came to an agreement in the 50’s when they both lived in Williamsberg, where the chasidim would be mekabel shabbos at the first shkia, and the litvishe would keep rabeinu tam zman for moitzoei shabbos. This is why the yeshivishe crowd in the US generally holds RT zman after shabbos.February 11, 2013 2:25 pm at 2:25 pm #932900
on the ballParticipant
If you daven Mincha after Shkia you’re standing on strong shoulders – both the Mechaber and the Rema pasken that this is OK.February 11, 2013 6:28 pm at 6:28 pm #932901
“My new shul does mincha/mariv 20 minutes after shkia.”
According to the poskim they rely on, it is not after shkiya.February 12, 2013 2:18 pm at 2:18 pm #932902
Thank you everyone for the information.
@apushatayid after researching it; this is what I discovered.February 12, 2013 4:20 pm at 4:20 pm #932903
Research a little more. Just because it is your shkiya, it does not mean it is their shkiya.February 12, 2013 4:37 pm at 4:37 pm #932904
RT shkia is as a generall rule approx 20mins before nacht.
However if you daven mincha after shkia, be careful not to daven maariv before nacht straight after.February 12, 2013 5:17 pm at 5:17 pm #932905
There is nothing Chassidish about following this Shitta. This was the accepted opinion among all of Ashkenazic Jewry for hundreds of years (see a detailed list in Sefer Yisroel V’Hazmanim).
By the way in Breuer’s in Washington Heights the daily minyan for Mincha is after Shkiah! I don’t think they are very Chassidish.February 12, 2013 6:37 pm at 6:37 pm #932906
on the ballParticipant
Artiste: With respect, your statement is inaccurate as even if you daven mincha before shkia but after Plag you should wait until nacht for maariv.February 12, 2013 9:22 pm at 9:22 pm #932907
Of course you’re right that it not only chassidim who follow this shita. All i was saying is generally, chasidim follow ‘2nd skiah’. Most non-chasidim among the ashkenazim, i.e. litvish and ‘yekkish’/yotzei ashkenaz are makpid to daven before first shkiah, like the mishna berura.
The original yekkish minhag is based on the maharil and others, which is older than the shulchan oruch and rema, and that doesnt actually mention shkia as a limit for davening mincha. This is why kehilos like Breuers and other yekishe kehilos daven after shkiah.
I’ve never been there for shabbos, but i doubt they are mekabel shabbos after 1st shkiah like some chasidish places do. Please could someone confirm this.February 12, 2013 9:52 pm at 9:52 pm #932908
Aaron Chaim – There are no places, Chassidish or not, that do melocho after the shkiah. I don’t know where you get this that there are chasidish places that are mekabel shabbos after the first shkiah (I assume you are referring to doing melachah, not davening Kabbolas Shabbos).
This has been the case since at least World War I. Even before WWII, there were virtually no kehillos left that were meikil like Rabeinu Tam in regards to Kabbolas Shabbos.
(There are exceptions in the case of a a baby born bein hashmoshos Erev Shabbos, depending on which Chassidus, whether a bris is made the following Shabbos or not).February 13, 2013 3:43 am at 3:43 am #932909
Viznitz and Stolin hold of the first shkiah.February 13, 2013 7:43 pm at 7:43 pm #932910
The correct interpretation of Rabbeinu Tam is that neither the early nor the late “shkiah” refer to what we commonly call “sunset”.February 13, 2013 9:35 pm at 9:35 pm #932911
old man – The “first” shkiah, or Tchilas Shkiah, according to Rabbeinu Tam is sunset. From where do you see otherwise?February 13, 2013 9:49 pm at 9:49 pm #932912
You’re probably right that kehilos are not meikil, but individuals may be.February 16, 2013 10:05 pm at 10:05 pm #932913
Thanks for asking. Indeed, your understanding is the prevalent one, however, it seems to be incorrect.
1.Sefer Hayashar, siman 221
2. Book by Rav Zinni of Haifa, Shitat Rabbeinu Tam b”ven Hasmashot
3. Hama’ayan, Vol. 200, presentation by Rav Yaakov Levinger
A synopsis: According to all, tzet hakochavim follows ben hashmashot, and is defined by three medium-sized stars.
The issue is to resolve the two lengths of bein hashmashot, one 3/4 mil, the other 4 mil. Rabbeinu Tam resolves this contradiction by postulating a thick window or tunnel which the sun goes through. The first window is when the light of the day starts dimming (way before sunset).The second is when the sun exits the end of the window or passageway. This is tzet hacochavim, no light is left. What we call sunset is somwhere in between, but neither the entrance into the tunnel, nor the exit from it.
The upshot is essentially twofold:
1. All times are counted backwards from when the stars appear, which is the ony universally agreed upon ( agreed upon by all the sugyot in the gemara) event.
2. What counts is not the position of the sun, but rather the amount of light still experienced on Earth. This amount of light is influenced by the setting of the sun, but there is a diminishing of light even before sunset, and still a considerable amount of light after the sun sets. It is this gradual change of lighting that Rabeinu Tam considers.
I know this is different than what is practiced and taught. Please read at least the Sefer Hayashar and one of the other sources (they both quote the sefer hayashar anyway). It will explain everything, including those Rishonim who understood Rabeinu Tam correctly, and those Achronim who did not.February 17, 2013 12:28 am at 12:28 am #932914
My new shul does mincha/mariv 20 minutes after shkia.
What do they do with it? Do you not mean daven mincha? We daven Mincha every day 10 minutes before Plag and Maariv right after!February 17, 2013 5:26 pm at 5:26 pm #932915
old man – Yhank you for the reply. In actuality what you are saying is not universal. Yes, what you are saying is the shittah of the Minchas Kohen (which was the prevalent minhag in Germany and Hungary), that all the calculations are calculated backwards from the actual tzeis hachochavim.
There were however shittos that used a fixed sunset and 72 minutes after sunset, regardless of the visual stars. This was the prevelant minhag in Galicia, and is followed today by Satmar, Belz, Klausenberg, and others. By the way, the simple reading of the Mechaber in Shulchan Aruch seems to follow this view.February 17, 2013 7:24 pm at 7:24 pm #932916
Oh yes, the opinion I presented is far fom universal, it is still a minority opinion, but I feel it may eventually be accepted in lumdus theory. I have no doubt that the Satmar and others will not give this interpretation the time of day (no pun intended), however strong the argument may be.
The flaw in waiting 72 minutes from what we see as sunset is that there is agreement in all gemara sugyot that bein hashmashot ends at three medium sized stars. At that point, it is night, period. Throughout the year, 72 minutes post sunset is approximately 30 minutes past three-star appearance time. As is plain as one can see, 72 minutes after sunset, especially in the Middle East, is as dark as dark can be, and cannot possibly represent the end of bein hashmashot. Without saying this time-table is ridiculous, it certainly is logically untenable.
A close look at Rabbeinu Tam’s own words (not just quotes in his name in Tosfos and other Rishonim and Achronim) clearly shows that his two-shkiah solution, besides being a stroke of innovative genius, refers to the sun entering the thick corridor (rakia) and still being seen (first shkiah),until there is no light left , significantly after the sun is no longer seen (second shkiah). The end point, though, is three stars and no later. Astronomical/Visible sunset occurs without halachic consequences.
That said, any further explanations on my part would not do justice to the painstakingly thorough treatment the two illustrious rabbonim I sourced above independently gave to this subject. I will allow their published works to convince you. Or not, hakol l’shem shamayim.February 18, 2013 4:06 pm at 4:06 pm #932917
bp27: Umm… that’s not quite true. Many in Kiryas Yoel do Melacha after what we would call Shkiya. I have also been to several smaller communities where they do the same.February 18, 2013 4:16 pm at 4:16 pm #932918
So what? They have a valid shitta.February 18, 2013 4:22 pm at 4:22 pm #932919
old man – In regards to calling those who say that in the Middle East Tzais is 72 after the visible shkiyah “ridiculous” and “logically untenable”, please don’t forget that the Mechaber clearly states that Tzais is 72 minutes after the sun is not visible (OC 261:2).
Since he lived in Eretz Yisroel, I hesitate to call his opinion “ridiculous” or “logically untenable”.February 18, 2013 7:03 pm at 7:03 pm #932920
bp: Many hesitate to say such things about the Mechaber’s opinions. However, it is clear that the Pashtus of the Mechaber’s opinion in this is untenable. It cannot be that you look outside, see pitch blackness, and still call it Yom Gamur. It just can’t be. I don’t know what P’shat is. But I do know that P’shat cannot be the standard assumption.
(By the way, why do some people start reading fixed minutes into random places in the SH”A? These 72 minutes should be Z’maniyos, just like every other time the Mechaber mentions minutes.)February 18, 2013 7:33 pm at 7:33 pm #932921
You certainly cannot have any taainas on anyone following the Mechaber’s psak.February 18, 2013 8:06 pm at 8:06 pm #932922
I am used to being called a mezalzel b’chvod chachomim, and I can handle that. But this time, I in no way was referring to the Mechaber, nor do I think his position is ridiculous or logically untenable.
My understanding of the Mechaber is totally different.The mechaber states, ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????
Those are the words. Whereas you are interpreting shkias hachamah to mean sunset, I do not. I already showed how Rabbeinu Tam postulated two different shkiot hachamah, when neither of them referred to sunset.
Furthermore, if the Mechaber understood like you, all he had to say was , ???? ????? ????? and we would all yell, Of course! Sunset!. But no, he talks about a hatchalah. What hatchalah? The sun sets and it’s gone! Beginning and end within a minute or two! Second, why the explanation ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ? Any child can see that after the sun sets it is no longer seen on the land!
The answer is that the Mechaber is not talking about the sun setting, but rather the point in time, way before the sun sets, where it’s light does not shine brightly on the earth ??? ???? ???? ?? ????, where it’s effectiveness is very muted, but before it sets. This is hatchalat hashkiah, and is exactly the way I (not me, but the sources I mentioned) explained Rabbeinu Tam. This period is 3.25 mil and is still vadai yom. Bein hashmashot is after this period, some time after the sun sets, and is only 0.75 mil. How are these periods related to sunset? They are not related. Bein hashmashot is simply 0.75 mil before three stars. Tchilat shkiah is 4 mil before three stars. The Mechaber holds like Rabbeinu Tam, but not the Satmar version. That is pshat, and it answers all problems, at least according to Rabbeinu Tam.
Again, according to this line of reasoning, Rabbenu Tam’s tzet is three stars, just like everyone else. I reiterate, calling darkness vadai yom is ridiculous and logically untenable. Neither Rabbeinu Tam nor the Mechaber hold that darkness is day.
To Sam the Scholar and Anav, I hope this explanation helped to understand the Mechaber and Rabbeinu Tam.February 18, 2013 8:22 pm at 8:22 pm #932923
Another point, for Rabbeinu Sam. I also don’t know why these are not sha’ot zmaniyot. I’m sure you are familiar with the Chasam Sofer’s long tshuva explaining when we use 60 minute hours and when we use sha’ot zmaniyot. I don’t remember off hand what he says about this, but it definitely makes sense that it’s zmaniyot. However,at least in Israel, the difference is almost negligible regarding tzet hacochavim and ben hashmashot.
Furthermore, as you may have hinted, who says a mil is 18 minutes? maybe it’s 20,or 22? Then, 4 mil becomes 88 minutes. 88 minutes after sunset in Tzfat? As night as night can be. Not day.February 19, 2013 1:52 am at 1:52 am #932924
Abc12345: The Mishna Brurah 233:14 says one should daven byechidis rather than daven after sunset.However, he says bdieved one could rely on those who argue on those hold only up to shkia.It comes out one could be meikel up until 20 min after shkia(he writes up until ??? ??? ??? ???.Rav Avigdor Nebontzal says if one does not hold ?”? for motzai shabbas then one can’t be somech on this because of ??? ??? ????? ?????.
AaronChaim: Rav Moshe already said that ?”? is preferred,isn’t that the litvishe?February 19, 2013 6:32 pm at 6:32 pm #932925
Sam4: Rav Moshe says R”T is preferred but changes what R”T said because it cannot be that there’s pitch blackness and it’s not night yet.
Old man: I’ve heard that explanation before. It’s probably P’shat. But once again, I have to be very hesitant before saying anything definitive on this subject. Also, calling a Mil 18 minutes really only works if you assume the SH”A is sometimes talking in fixed hours. 24 works much better (in just about every Rishon) and is very clear from the Be’ur Hagra (I forget which Siman but it’s a S’if 2; it’s the one where the SH”A talks about Shkia), assuming that it’s Zmaniyos and when the SH”A says 3/4 Mil he means 18 Zmaniyos minutes. Rabbi Dr. David Shabtai had an article about this in one of the YU Torah publications (maybe there’s a Kol Tzvi on Shabbos or Bein Hashmashos or something) and his P’shat really seems the most likely.February 19, 2013 6:58 pm at 6:58 pm #932926
Sam2: I understand that,but wasn’t Rabeinu Tam talking about Eretz Yisroel. The time of Tzeits is different in different regions.So in reality tzeits can be earlier than the classic 72 shiur. Also the Gra holds the shuir is much shorter than the classic shuir.February 19, 2013 7:02 pm at 7:02 pm #932927
Sam4321: In E”Y it’s much shorter than in New York, even during the summer. If 72 minutes is for E”Y then New York can be hours. It just doesn’t work.February 19, 2013 7:31 pm at 7:31 pm #932928
Sam2: I hear,so how do you explain Rav Moshe in Rabeinu Tam.February 19, 2013 7:44 pm at 7:44 pm #932929
Sam4: I don’t. I think he felt that a Dachuk reading of the words was untenable and admits that we can’t really understand it, but chose that the physically untenable P’shat was better than the P’saht that’s Dachuk in the reading of the words. And even so, he has to reinterpret Rabbeinu Tam. Because, Sof Kol Sof, the Pashtus of the Shittah is one of the most Dachuk Shittos out there in Kol HaTorah Kullah. We can’t really figure it out.February 19, 2013 8:17 pm at 8:17 pm #932930
I hear,but do you agree he was only talking about Eretz Yisroel?February 26, 2013 5:53 pm at 5:53 pm #932931
About the logic of the 72 minutes…
R Meir Posen in his sefer Or Meir has a whole kuntres about this inyan, called kuntres haneshef, and he holds 72 minutes is not uniform across the whole year in all places. It will be longer or shorter according to where you are. So in places like Gateshead, there is no RT nacht all summer long, as it never gets that dark, but there is a reddish tinge in the sky all night, in June july august.
Dayan AD Dunner told me that we are noheg the 72 minutes uniform, across the whole year and in all places. It is not based on calculations, but is just 72 minutes. That is how R’ Aharon instituted it in the US yeshivish kehillos.
According to this, sometimes it comes out BEFORE motzoei shabbos in the middle of summer in Gateshead. Obviously, the 72 mins is only lechumra.February 26, 2013 7:01 pm at 7:01 pm #932932
Sam4: Sorry I didn’t see your response. (Actually, I feel like I responded to this already; maybe the mods didn’t let it through.) No, I don’t agree. Because that is even more physically untenable and would put Rabbeinu Tam Tzeis at several hours after nightfall in places like New York, which just cannot be either.
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