Chidushim on Daf Yomi

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    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נב,א

    The Beis Hilel was the majority, so what do we need the bas kol, heavenly voice for? So Tosfas explains that אחרי רבים להטות can be questioned what it means, כמות or איכות quantity or quality? The Beis Shamai were sharper whereas the Beis Hilel had a better memory. I heard that this was the argument by Chanukah between the Beis Shamai and Beis Hilel which way we light down or up, starting from eight and going backwards until one or starting from one and going forwards until eight. Each one when it comes to learning Torah emphasizes what they were missing. For the Beis Shamai, sharpness came at a later age, but they were missing memory which comes at an earlier age, so they wanted to go backwards whereas for the Beis Hilel sharpness was required so they wanted to advance forward. We find the argument סיני and עוקר הרים a baki having great talmudic knowledge or a sharp individual who can question everything which is greater. So, it was ruled that the baki with great knowledge is greater because he creates the foundation of the building. The Beis Hilel had this great knowledge because of their memory whereas the Beis Shamai was the sharp one with the questions. Currently we don’t fully understand the stringencies of the Beis Shamai but leosid lavo, at the redemption, we will gain a better understanding, so the majority will accept the Beis Shamai and pasken like that.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נב,ב

    The argument whether besomim or the candle comes first, maybe that according to the Beis Shamai we cannot avoid seeing the candle and therefore, not to bypass a mitzva praising Hashem for the fire He provides and provided us Motzei Shabbos, comes first. Whereas, the Beis Hilel looks at the levels of differentiation as explained before from lowest to highest, taste, smell, sight and the mind. In which case smell comes before sight as the sight is more reliable differentiation than smell.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נג,א

    On Yom Kippur we take a rested candle but not Shabbos because, explains the MB ( 298,26), that Shabbos we take a candle to commemorate the creation of fire by rubbing two stones together which is the opposite. It indicates that it was not there before but on Yom Kippur, we want to show that this fire’s use was forbidden before and allowed now, therefore, the fire must exist from before.

    There is an argument among the litvishe and chasidishe what is better, one should make kiddush for everyone or everyone should make kiddush for themselves? The Chasiddishe make kiddush for themselves and the litvishe one makes kiddush for all. They say that the rule טוב בו יותר מבשלוחו that he personally comes before the shliach does not apply as שומע כעונה hearing is like answering considering the person himself making the brocho, so we have ברוב עם הדרת מלך it is nicer to do things in a group.
    In SA O’CH 298,14 says that one should make the brocho on the candle for all. They all enjoy the light at once. When it comes to make a brocho on a talis, we find in SA O’CH 8,5 we are given a choice either one makes the brocho for everyone or if they want one makes the brocho and the others answer Amen. The MB s’k 13 says that one making the brocho we currently don’t follow as people don’t know how each should have in mind the other one to be yotzei. We find in YD 19,3 that two shochtim with two animals one can motzei the other. Asks the Kreisi s’k 6 why over here there is an option as by talis above but by Milah YD 265,5 no option is given by two mohalim with two boys one makes the brocho and the other is yotzei. Maybe as he mentions there it is more in public.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נג,ב

    The Ikar havdalah on motzei shaabbos is the brocho. So a person can make havdalah even if he has no candle or besomim except on Yom Kippur where the candle is part of the havdalah as we show that there is a difference regarding the candle on Yom Kippur and after in its use. A person can make havdalah for motzei shabbos until wednesday morning and without the candle or besomim.

    This question of besomim or the candle coming first might be that besomim is for the outgo of shabbos which comes before lighting the candle or the sight of the light which is automatic before the smell.

    Is the one making the brocho equivalent to the one answering Amen or the one answering is greater? You can’t answer Amen without a brocho but a brocho without validation is like a day without sunshine.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נד,א

    Until now we talked about sight as a differentiation but now we talk about sight as a commemoration. Recognizing the greatness of Hashem through a miracle that many or one experienced.
    The Magen Avraham (686,5) says that people can make like a Purim a national or personal holiday to commemorate a miracle that happened on a particular day. We are not diminishing by this the importance of other days. We don’t mix one enjoyment with another not to diminish from each other. The Chasam Sofer in Maseches Shabbos (22,1) starting Pesulah, says that there is a biblical mitzva to commemorate a miracle that happened to one from a kal vochomer, if servitude to freedom praise required certainly from death to life. Therefore the Behag holds that Chanukah and Purim are biblical but the method of commemoration whether throgh lighting candles or reading of the megilla, as the neis happened through the king not being able to sleep and reading a megilla, is rabbinical.

    ברכות נד,ב

    I one heard, יודו לה’ חסדו ונפלאותיו לבני אדם when we get cured we should thank Hashem who healed us but we see the wonder in the doctor, a human being. That is why we don’t find Moshe Rabbenu being praised in the Haggadah as he is a tool of doctor, Hashem. The Midrash asks on ויאמינו בה’ ובמשה עבדו – אם במשה האמינו בה’ לא כל שכן if they believed in Moshe than certainly they believed in Hashem? אם כן למה נאמר ובמשה עבדו so why does it say in His servant Moshe, to teach us whoever beliefs in the talmid beliefs in the Rav. The question is, it should have said, why does it say they believed in Hashem? Maybe, since all the abilities of Moshe Rabbenu came from Hashem it is obvious that if they believed in Hashem than they would also believe in Moshe Rabbenu as Shimon Hamosini did not need to learn to fear talmidei chachomim as their abilities come from Hashem whereas Rebbi Akiva was am haaretz, so for him that was not so obvious.,

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נה,א

    It says in SA O’CH 98,5 that a person should not figure that he is worthy to be listened to because he had special kevonos in tefila as this brings to more scrutiny above to see whether he is really worthy to be listened to and if he is, his reward of his good deeds will be deducted. A person should ask for a matnas chinom as Moshe Rabbenu did not ask even for the good deeds he could have done in Eretz Yisroel. It says אליך ה’ אקרא ואל אדנ-י אתחנן, starts off with second person, direct and finishes in third person? Starts with midas horachamim and finishes with midas hadin? The two are related as we just said. We have to recognize that if we want a matnas chinom only the Master of the Universe has the ability to grant it.
    The gemora says in Maseches Shabbos (32,2) אמר רב יצחק בריה דרב יהודה: לעולם יבקש אדם רחמים שלא יחלה, שאם יחלה – אומרים לו: הבא זכות והפטר. A person should ask that he should not get sick because if he gets sick they tell him bring your benefits to get healed. אם יש לו פרקליטין גדולים – ניצול, ואם לאו – אינו ניצול. ואלו הן פרקליטין של אדם – תשובה ומעשים טובים he needs great defenders, teshuva and good deeds to get saved. This might be the reason Hashem creates the cure before the illness as we might not be worthy to be saved at the time of the illness. This is the reason a person should not go under a bent wall that might fall because they will check above if he is worthy to be saved. Also, if you want the other should be punished let us see if you are worthy of it.
    If a person extends his prayer to ask for mercy because he thinks he is not worthy that prayer is beneficial.

    Reb Eliezer

    The table is like the mizbeach when one feeds the poor at the table as the mizbeach feeds the kohanim from the sacrifice.
    The Rambsm emphasizes two places the importance of feeding the poor. In Hilchas Yom Tov (6,160) he says that someone who locks the door on the poor is not an enjoyment of a mitzva but an enjoyment of his own stomach. The other one is in Hilchas Megilla (2,17) where he says that there is no more greater or beautiful enjoyment than to make the poor and downtrodden happy. According to this, mishloach manos is based on matonas laevyonim not to ashame the poor, but according to the other Rambam above the Ksav Sofer says that it is based on the sudah in order to share with the poor. The SA O’CH 647,1 finishes up with טוב לב משתה תמיד where the question is if on Purim Katan we should make a sudah? So, says the Ksav Sofer that if he has good heart to give mishloach manos, than he can also make a sudah. The SA starts with the RMA quoting שויתי ה’ לנגדי תמיד keeping Hashem constantly in front of us as a King through fear and ends by get close to Hashem through love, so I heard that this is implied in ושני תמידים כהלכתם keeping the two tamids in front of us as the SA describes or keeping the SA in front of us constantly.

    Reb Eliezer

    I heard in the name of the Satmar Rav, Rav Yoel ztz’l it says מראשית השנה עד אחרית שנה from the beginning of the year to the end of the year, but why doesn’t it say עד אחרית השנה? He explained that in the beginning of the year we think this will be the special year of redemption but at the end it is like any other year.
    I heard that it says by Betzalel לחשוב מחשבות he had to know where to put what was donated. If someone had the proper mindset, as the Alshich Hakadash explains that what we give to Hashem was ידבנו לבו the desire to give through his heart as Hashem does not really need it because He has everything, he would make maybe, the aron with it. The Dubner Magid says that thereby he showed
    that he loved Hashem more than himself by willing to give up something he loves for something else and showing that the second thing is more beloved than the first.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נה,ב

    Talking about interpretation of dreams. How did Yosef know that the baker supervisor should be hung? I heard a mashel. A king commissioned a painter to paint a man holding a bowl of fruit. The fruit was so lifelike that the birds were eating from it. The king said, yes the fruit is lifelike but the man is not. How is it that the birds are not afraid from the man? Yosef saw that the birds where eating from the basket of baked goods held by the baker supervisor, so he must be considered dead.
    The Dubner Magid explains why the Pharaohs dream interpreters could not interpret his dream with a mashel. A king wanted his son to gain knowledge for the future becoming king. When he returned, the ministers wanted to test him to see what he learned. So, one took a ring and placed it in his hand and ask the young man, what am I holding in my hand? The boy says, according to the formula we learned it must be a round object with a hole in the middle. So the minister asked him, so what do you think it can be? He says it is millstone with a hole in the middle. The interpreters of Pharaoh had all the formulas but they lacked common sense.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נו,א

    A person dreams what he thinks in the daytime. How it is being interpreted becomes true through self fulfilling prophecy by working on it to make it true.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נו,ב

    It says אנכי ארד עמך ואנכי אעלך גם עלה I will go down with you and bring you up with me, ask the Dubner Magid, why is Hashem first when going down but second when coming up? He compares this to a father taking his son into a pool. When going in, he goes first but when going out he protects him by having him go out first. Similarly, Hashem went down to Mitzraim first to protect us but had us come out first before He left.
    It says הבאים מצרימה איש וביתו באו they come to Mitzraim, man and his house came. There is a contradiction in the pasuk. It starts in the present, coming and finishes in the past, came? The Klei Yokor says that they should not assimilate but see themselves coming now. Maybe, according what we said, the Rabbenu Bechaye says that איש refers to Hashem and His Court came, meaning when the Jews came, Hashem was there already.

    Reb Eliezer

    It says in Taamei Haminhogim that we daven about dreams at birchas kohanim because a dream is 1/60 of kedusha and the kohanim are all kedusha, so they can nullify a bad dream in sixty.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נז,א-ב

    People concerned with dreams, there is a siman in SA O’CH 220,1 about collecting 3 people and saying a
    הטבת חלום to right a bad dream, but I think the gemora says in Maseches Pesochim by zugos, eating pairs
    מאן דלא קפיד לא קפדו בהדיה if one does not care, they don’t care above ‘שומר פתאים ה Hashem protects the fools. See also SA O’CH 288 about תענית חלום even on shabbos.


    Berochus Daf n58
    Do you make a Bruacha on President Donald Trump, meaning is he considered a king concerning this matter. Would there be an obligation to attend his rally in order to make the bruacha even if he is not your president?

    Reb Eliezer

    Abba_S, as pointed in SA O’CH 224,7 the nusach is Hashem gave from his wisdom to a human being. I think it is a futile brocho because trump has shown time and time again his lack of wisdom. He has gotten rid of his best advisorsn because of selfishness thinking that he knows better than anyone else, see Medrash Shmuel on כל מחלוקת לשם שמים . He encourages midas sedom by not caring for poor. The corona virus he dismissed rather than showing care for the nation. There was a network created by previous presidents for emergency services which was disbanded by him. I have not seen any personal wisdom from him. What he did for Israel is because of his family.

    Reb Eliezer

    There is an interesting story which happened to the Chasan Sofer. He was learning at night holding a candle and in the middle he fell asleep. His gemora caught fire. Thw Chasam Sofer came in a dream to his daughter, Hindle, mother of the Chasan Sofer, telling her rush your son is in danger, so she rushed and saved her son. The family happens to have the burned gemora.

    Reb Eliezer

    Abba_S, what I said before is from my own but look at the MB s’k 12 there saying we should not make this brocho on a president or constitutional monarch who does not have life and death power. On the side, the Malbim explains where Achashveros showed his wealth for 180 days and had his wife come to him naked. He wanted ti show that he is a dictator with limitless power where the wealth belongs to him and the wife is owned by him without any constitutiinal restrictions he calls it a ממשלה שאינה מוגבלת. He explaina the difference between
    מלכה ושתי and ושתי המלכה. The second, Achashveos held that without me, you are just Vashti so she said I am a queen because of my birth rite being a grand daughter of Nevuchadnezar.


    You do realize that President Trump can pardon prisoners who are sentenced to death. Also he can order a drone strike on anyone deemed an enemy combatant anywhere in the world so it can be argued he has the power of life and death. In fact wasn’t the president impeached because the Democrats claimed he exceeded the constitutional restrictions similar to your case with Achashveros.

    Reb Eliezer

    Abba_S doesn’t the fact that he can be impeached show that he does not have unlimited power?
    He can not sentence someone to death. The fact there is a constitution limits his power. Achashveros, could he have been impeached?

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נח,א

    כי יד על כס י-ה the Rabbenu Bachaye says that the word אוה from אוה למושב לו stands for the א in כסא and וה from the Shem י-ה-ו-ה to destroy Amolek and complete the Shem Hashem. ימלא ה’ כל משאלותך all our wishes should be that Hashem’ name should become complete. The Chasan Sofer explains that this is the hidden meaning in מן המצר קראתי י–ה ענני במרחב י-ה from narrowness I call you answer from expansiveness. Hashem in a compressed form is also 26 יוד הא but we want to be answered in an expanded form. It says by Yom Tov הוא לבדו יעשה לכם only necessities for food are you allowed to do. Interprets the Kol Aryeh that הוא the same letters as אוה we should work on the fact that this letters are on their own, how to unite them. Maybe Yom Tov, free from work, we have time to think more clearly that the shechina is also in galus עמו אנכי בצרה Hashem is with us in galus.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נח,ב

    In Pirkei D’rebbi Eliezer 31, says that Yitzchok Avinu was revived and he said, מחיה המתים. The Beis Yosef O’CH 112, quotes the Shibolei Leket that the brochos of shmonei esrei are based on some historic occurrence when it was said. When Avraham Avinu was saved from the oven of fire, he said מגן אברהם. When Yitzchok Avinu was saved by the Akedah, they said, מחיה המתים. When Yaakov Avinu arrived to the gates of mercy, he realized that only Hashem provides it because of His holiness, he said הא-ל הקדוש. When Yosef was taught seventy languages, he said, חונן הדעת. When Ruvein was saved from death after his act with Bilhoh and his repentance , he said, הרוצה בתשובה. When Yehudah was forgiven for his act with Tomor, he said, חנון המרבה לסלוח. When Hashem promised the Jews that they will be taken out of Mitzraim, they said, גואל ישראל not גאל ישראל but constantly. When Raphael healed Avraham Avinu, he said, רופא חולה עמו ישראל. When Yitzchok Avinu planted and grew 100 times as much, he said, מברך השנים. When Yaakov Avinu went down to mitzraim and all the shevotim got together with Yosef, they said, מקבץ נדחי עמו ישראל. When Moshe Rabbenu was told about the judgments to follow, he said, מלך אוהב צדקה ומשפט. When the Egyptians sunk into the sea, the Jews said, שובר אובים ומכניע זדים. When Hashem promised to Yaakov Avinu that Yosef will bury him, he said,
    משען ומבטח לצדיקים. When Shlomo Hamelech built the Beis Hamikdash, he said, בונה ירושלים. When the Jews went through the sea and said shiroh, they said, מצמיח קרן ישועה. When the Jews cried in Mitzraim and were listened to, they said, שומע תפילה. When the shechina lowered itself to the Mishkan, they said, המחזיר שכינתו לציון. When Shlomo Hamelech brought the Aron into the Mikdash, he gave thanks by saying, הטוב שמך ולך נאה להודות. When the Jews arrived to Eretz Yisroel and saw peace there, they said, המברך את עמו ישראל בשלום.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נט,א

    When one tells his friend, look at the rainbow, it is considered lashan hara. But why? Maybe he is telling him to do teshuva? The Klei Yokor explains the meaning that at the time of Rebbe Shimon bar Yochai there was no rainbow seen but it does not say there was no rainbow. Since there were tzadikim, they really did not care about seeing a rainbow as the tzadik protected them. According to this, the lashan hara is that we have no tzadikim to protect us.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות נט,ב

    Kiddush Hachama comes around every twenty eight years. It is the time when the sun is in the same position as at creation Tuesday night 6:00 PM. According to Shmuel the sun travels in a 365 1/4 days such that there is a difference of 6 hours every year so it takes 4 years to get to the same time on a day. To get back to that particular day, it requires a 7 day cycle. So to get to this hour above for Tuesday it will require 7×4 or 28 years. We have another calculation of 19 years where the moon catches up with the sun. A moon year is around 354 days whereas a sun year is around 365 so there is a difference of 11 days. Every 3,6,8,11,14,17,19 years of the 19 year cycle we add an extra month. The question the Masas Binyomin asks why can’t we make a kiddush hachama after 19 years? He explains it does not guarantee that the sun will be in the same place as the time of creation. The Yaaros Devash,1 asks, how does this work when Adam Harishon was created in Tishri and we make Kiddush Hachama in Nissan? He explains that before Adam Harishan sinned the sun traveled in an accelerated rate covering six months in 3 days.

    Reb Eliezer

    The planets שצם חנכל – שבתאי,צדק,מאדים, חמה, נוגע, כוכב, לבנה – Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon
    Each serves one hour cycling through in order and repeating starting from Tuesday night.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות ס,א

    When buying a new car for recreation the Igros Moshe (3,80) says that for himself make שהחיינו and for the family make הטוב והמטיב,

    אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר if the women enjoys the relationship first the child is a boy. The Ksav Sofer in Shmos כאשר יענו אותו כן ירבה וכן יפרץ explains the more they afflicted him the more boys were born. The men were exhausted from work, so the women had the desire more and boys were born.

    Over here, we need to reconcile the Torah and science. The science says that the man has an x&y chromosome and the woman has 2-x’s. If the man gives a y, it is a boy and if he gives an x, it is a girl. So according to this, the man determines the gender. We must say that the woman creates the environment for the man under which he either gives an x or y chromosome.

    Hilel said the screaming cannot come from my house because they, in my house, accept the bad with the good with the same feeling.

    The doctor is only given allowance to heal not to depress people and cause mental anguish.
    It says כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך כי אני ה’ רפאך all diseases I placed on Egypt I will not place on you as I am Hashem, your healer. First we see that the one providing preventive medicine is the true doctor. Second by the doctor, it says ורפא ירפא a peh and by Hashem it is a feh. Explains the Rabbenu Bechaye that the pronunciation of a fey is light, easy cure whereas by a doctor the peh is harsh and so is the cure. Why the double language by the doctor? I heard some answers from doctors. One said that by Hashem there are no side effects, so we don’t need to go back the second time. The other said, that by a doctor, the Torah wants us to get a second opinion.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות ס,ב

    אשר יצר את האדם בחכמה Hashem created the man with wisdom. There is not enough space to write about this. The Chovas Halvovas in Shaar Habechina goes into it in great detail. The fact that the necessity for survival breathing, is automatic should be recognized A healthy, desires food and enjoys its taste which encourages him to eat. The digestive system makes sure that the nutrition is extracted from food and the rest gotten rid of.The circulatory system provides nutrition automatically through the blood stream. I explained that this might be included in the meaning in bentching on the pasuk ומפרנס אותנו בכל עת ובכל שעה Hashem supports us all the time and hours. The human brain is the ultimate computer. A computer cannot think and chose alternatives on its own if it is not programmed to do so. The fact that a person can decide to move and no one tells him what to do like a robot is not realized. The speech, that a person communicates makes us alive and by hearing we are able to create a conversation and hearing music and being able to enjoy it needs to be appreciated. Seeing beautiful sights and stumbling blocks to avoid is not being valued enough. Smell a rose or spices and avoiding danger is taken for granted. Maybe by havdalah we wake up this senses to appreciate them.
    When Adam Harishan was created, he was provided a prepared table. That is why, if he is smart the fly preceded him, only makes him greater as everything was prepared for him ahead of time. The Medrash Shmuel explains that the world was created with ten statements shows the greatness of the human being how everything before him was created for his benefit and therefore he should appreciate the creation of the world and not destroy it through his sins.
    We finish with the brocho רופא כל בשר Hashem heals the whole body before its gets sick and ומפליא לעשות He creates wonders after a person gets sick. The cure comes from the scab. Tosfas explains that there are openings were the neshomo could escape as the air in a balloon but it stays put.

    Reb Eliezer

    The brocho שעשה לי כל צרכי , Hashem provided for me all my needs, is said on leather shoes. The human being is on the highest level of creation, דומם,צומח,חי, מדבר inanimate, plant, living and speaking. Each one feeds itself from what is below it. The plant from water. The living from plants and the speaking human being from the living. The plant is greater than the inanimate. The living is greater than the plant and inanimate. The human being is greater than the living, plant and inanimate. I heard that we step back three steps by shmonei esrei to lower ourselves three levels to the level of inanimate object.

    Reb Eliezer

    The Rambam and Sefer Hachinuch hold that tefilin are two mitzvos, the head and the hand. There is an argument among the ashkanezim and sefardim if there are two brochos on them. The ashkanezim make two brochos as our gemora. The sefardim make only one brocho if one has not spoken out in between the two tefilins. Also the two are not dependent on each other and if he only puts one tefilin on, he makes on it its proper brocho. The Ketzos Hachoshen explains that there is no shelichas by tefilin because there is no action involved as the mitzva is to lie on him not to put it on. The Meiri says that the Rosh has four batim because the head contains four senses, seeing, hearing, smelling and tasting which we subordinate to Hashem and Yad has only one of feeling.

    Reb Eliezer

    If one speaks out in between the tefilins, says the RMA O’CH 25,9 he should adjust the Yad tie and make two brochos on the Rosh.

    Reb Eliezer

    For the ashkanezim if someone puts on only one tefilin, says the RMA O’CH 26,2 as Tosfas here, on the Rosh
    he makes two brochos and on the Yad he makes its own brocho.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות סא,א

    על כן יהיו דבריך מועטים we don’t know the effect of our words, so we should minimize our words by davening. The Rav Ibn Ezra on this pasuk goes out of his way in an extreme detail about saying קרובץ which stands for קול רנה וישועה באהלי צדיקים we know it as יוצרות yotzros because they used to say some in the middle of יוצר אור. He questions their validity and benefit of it as people don’t understand what they are saying In SA O’CH 68,1 this is discussed. The Mechaber says not to say it as it is a hefsak. The GRA follows this view. The RMA there brings from many rishonim including Tosfas that there is no problem when they are said for the benefit of the tzibur. Some say special yotzros Yom Tov by maariv called מערבית maarovis. The MB many times emphasizes its importance. When the first day Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the second day we say the maarovis of the first day except the second they Pesach when the maarovis mentioned by Tosfas above talks about sefiras haaamer. The Tur is against saying it by krias shma but allows the saying by shmonei esrei as we say קרובץ לפורים. The RMA emphasizes the importance of saying it and one should not separate himself from the tzibur. The Shaar Ephraim, 13 (grand father of the Chacham Tzvi) explains that on purpose sometimes they wrote it a language which is hard to understand in order the goyim should not use it for their prayer. The Chavas Yair in his last teshuva, 238 says that saying it in the middle of chazoras hashatz is not hefsak as it is unnecessary to be motzei anyone. The Teshuva Meahava, (1,1) answers all the questionable misunderstood pieces. The Bach 68, tells a story where a Rav wanted to eliminate saying it and l’a he did not live out his years.

    Reb Eliezer

    The gemora over here indicating the Adam Harishan was created with two yetzorim, two inclinations, yatzer tov and yetzer hara, disagrees with a Rashi in Koheles (4,13) where it says that a young smart individual is better than an old fool. This is interpreted on the Yetzer Tov who arrives at thirteen over the Yetzer Hara who arrived at birth. Maybe a Bar Mitzva becomes a מצווה ועושה commanded to do mitzvos and גדול מצווה ועושה משאינה מצווה ועושה it is greater the one commanded to do mitzvos than the one who is not commanded. Tosfas explains because once we are commanded, the yetzer hara resists the performance of mitzvos. Therefore if not commanded until Bar Mitzva there is no need for the yetzer hara’s resistance as their is no inclination to do mitzvos because the yetzer tov is not there yet to influence him. The yetzer hara in effect is dormant halachically until thirteen. The question is how is it fair that the yetzer hara takes up residents before the yetzer tov arrived? If the yetzer hara would not have some advantage, people would not listen to him. He also uses another means to influence us.
    The Chasan Sofer explains the pasuk Breishis (39,10) וַיְהִ֕י כְּדַבְּרָ֥הּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף י֣וֹם׀ י֑וֹם וְלֹא־שָׁמַ֥ע אֵלֶ֛יהָ And it was her talking to Yosef day by day, so he did not listen to her. This is similar to a peddler who praises the merchandise too much. If it is so good, why praise so much? Let the merchandise speak for itself. This behavior is similar to the yetzer hara who wants to encourage us to sin by praising its benefits day by day whereas the yetzer tov lets the merchandise speak for itself.

    Maybe, the reason we start from the great by elevating because he is more deserving whereas by lowering the small is more deserving.

    The Ohr Hachaim explains the pasuk Breishis (2,18) לֹא־ט֛וֹב הֱי֥וֹת הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְבַדּ֑וֹ אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לּ֥וֹ עֵ֖זֶר כְּנֶגְדּֽוֹ it is not good if the man is alone I will make create a help against him. They were connected as one so, Hashem said I will separate them so they be able look at each other and help each other. If they are together, they cannot help each other. Sometimes we don’t see our sins in ourselves but see it in the other.

    Rashi sees it that Monoach did not know the halacha mentioned not to follow the wife by her going in front of him. You can go next to each other.
    The Ben Ish Chai has an interesting interpretation about Monoach following his wife. When people are learned they can use their learning for their detriment by finding an excuse for bad behavior in the Torah or kabalah. Someone said that he will commit adultery. So he was told, how can you sin like that? He answers that after he will say some tikun to correct it. Now, if he would not have been knowledgeable in the tikun, he would never have thought of this type of behavior. So, it was good that he was an am haaretz and followed his wife and not another women.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות סא,ב

    בכל מאודך all your money. So, why does it not say בכל ממונך? I think that the word מאוד meaning more is emphasized. Serve Hashem with what is more precious to you. The Baal Haturim on the pasuk explains that this refers to the Avos, our forefathers. ואהבת has the same letters as האבות.
    בכל לבבך refers to Avraham Avinu who served Hashem with his whole heart ומצאת את לבבו נאמן לפנך you found him trustworthy in his heart. בכל נפשך refers to Yitzchok Avinu who sacrificed himself and בכל מאודך refers to Yaakov Avinu who said כל אשר תתן לי עשר אעשרנו לך whatever you give me I will take maaser for you.
    I heard once that when we take a fish out of water, it jumps around. It looks like it is enjoying itself but the truth is it is suffering and dying being out of place. Similarly when we give up the Torah we might look like we are enjoying ourselves but we are truly dying being out of place without water.

    It says ‘כל אשר יעבר תחת השבט העשירי יהיה קודש לה interprets the Arizal that each one of the ten martyrs was in the place of a shevet when Josef was sold and tenth Rebbi Akiva, a descendant of converts, was in place of Hashem who was included in the sale.
    It is said in the Tzetil Katan that a person can be mekayem the mitzva of sacrificing himself thinking of a fire burning and being forced to convert oneself from Judaism. He throws himself into the fire rather than convert.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות סב,א

    ומי כעמך ישראל גוי אחד who is like Your nation Yisroel, a unique nation. Not for nothing are we called עם קדוש a holy nation. We are commanded how to act in the bathroom. A person should not say, I can do what I want because no one sees me as Hashem is everywhere and we must be modest everywhere as outlined in SA O’CH 3. A person should uncover himself only as much as is necessary. We put on tefilin on the left hand, the weaker hand, showing that we subjugate ourselves to the Almighty Hashem. When wiping oneself, one should not use the right hand but the left because we tie our tefilin with the right hand. The question is, why don’t we say the opposite. Don’t use the left hand because we put tefilin on it? Maybe, as explained before with the ketzos , we are concerned with our action here and we do the action with the right hand. We remember the Beis Hamikdash by sitting from north to south and not from east to west were the holy ark was situated. We don’t appreciate one of the greatest inventions. Just imagine what we would need to use if not for toilet paper. The benefit of softness and comfort and avoiding illness by providing the proper sanitary conditions cannot be over estimated.

    Reb Eliezer

    The simple reason above using the left hand and not the right because tefilin we place on the arm whereas we tie tefilin using the hand. Therefore it says that we should avoid using the middle finger of the left hand where we tie the retzios on and not the right hand because we use our hand to tie the tefilin on.

    ברכות סב,ב

    The Arvei Nachal Parashas Shlach Darush 1, explains it great detail the means of recognizing when something is an influence of the yetzer hara.
    One, as mentioned above from the Chasan Sofer to see how much desire he has do to something. If his desire is overwhelming, he should question that maybe it is being portrayed by the yetzer hara as a mitzva when really it is an aveira. Sometimes we rationalize to explain an aveira and make it a mitzva on this the Baal Akedah says הרהורי עבירה קשה מעבירה explaining an aveira is worse than aveira because it because mutar and we will continue doing it.
    Two, אין אדם רואה את נגעי עצמו a person does not recognize his own faults. So, he should imagine, how would he feel if someone else did this?
    Three, a person wants to do something but he does not know if it is right or wrong. It has not been done before in his situation. David Hamelech felt that Shaul deserved death because he was out to kill him, but he was the King. David did something small to see how he will react afterwards. He cut Shaul’s edge of the garment and he felt extremely bad about it and he regret it as he describes it in Tehilim 7 as a stumble, a mistake. This becomes a test if the yetzer hara drives us to do something or the yetzer tov. We check our reaction afterwards. Most of the time we regret afterwards the wrong things we have done.

    Reb Eliezer

    This idea that David Hamelech said to Shaul that Hashem got you to sin by creating the yetzer hara and therefore counting through machtzis hashekel unites the Jews, as we need two half shekolim to make one, and it fights the yetzer hara as we said above that no sin is recognized when we are in unity. David Hamelech miscalculated figuring that the Machtzis Hashekel is a temporary kapara on the sin of the Eigel and just required for the building of the mishkan but it is required whenever we count the Jews. Also, the machtzis hashekel was even more required as the count was made with no purpose, so the mashchis took over without seeing good or bad. As we mentioned above from the Rabbenu Bechaye when we count without machtzis hashekel we break up the unity and the bad get separated from the good.

    Reb Eliezer

    ברכות סג,א

    What has greater a kedusha a Beis Hamedrash or a Beis Haknesses? In SA O’CH 153 it says that you can build a Beis Hamdrash from a Beis Haknesses but not vice versa but it also SA O’CH 151,2 in the RMA that we can eat and sleep in a Beis Hamedrash but not in a Beis Haknesses. No mezuzah is put in a Beis Haknesses but it is put in a Beis Hamedrash. A Beis Hamedrash is the home for talmidei chachomim, so even though it has a higher kedusha they still allowed eating and sleeping there.

    We don’t say Amen in the mikdash because the aura of kedusha is so great there that his blessings are automatically validated. He only says that the kedusha there should spread to everywhere else.

    There are two ways to pasken halachas. One to try to accommodate the needs of people and another to stay steadfast in the customs and traditions. Reb Moshe found ways to accommodate saying thirteen midos at night and having a lower mechitza, It depends of how עת לעשות לה’, הפרו תורתיך is looked at. If we say it as written then we should stay steadfast not to budge from tradition and customs. We must stay steadfast to protect the Torah . However, if we reverse it, ‘הפרו תורתיך עת לעשות לה then the emphasis is one accommodation to protect the Torah.

    When we have many friends, we don’t know how loyal they are. We recognize our enemies as they reveal their hatred towards us, but we don’t know what hides in the heart of our friends. Having a few helps to discern that.

    There is whole siman in SA O’CH 231 is based on how to do our everyday deeds like eating and sleeping to serve Hashem.

    When we pray because of our plight, we should also have in mind that Hashem punishing us also is suffering and pray for His suffering also. Hashem is with us in our galus as it says עמו אנכי בצרה Hashem is with us in our plight.
    When one follows this, he will be doubly be rewarded with support and health.
    Learning Torah protects us also from all plight by recognizing that Hashem looks out for us.

    ברכות סג,ב

    It says Meshiach will come when עני רוכב על החמור. עני stands for the hardest maseches being עירובין, נדה and יבמות.
    The churban came because of sinas chinom. These maseches unite us when we help each other in learning thereby bringing care towards each other and eliminating futile hate and bring Meshiach speedily. Learning on ones own can lead to mistakes as there is no one to correct each other. One does not realize that he is making a mistake.
    Hashem supports us when we support His own. Zevulin supports Yisochor the talmid chacham.

    ברכות סד,א

    There is a question here. We say סיני ועוקר הרים, סיני עדיף one with great knowledge and the one who is sharp with questions, the one with knowledge is considered greater. So, why do we pasken like Rabeh over Rav Yosef who was the sharp one?

    The Chasam Sofer explains the statement תלמודי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם talmid chachams spread peace on this world. There is a fixed amount of discourse ordained to this world. They can either be battles or debates among the sages. By using it for debates, there will be less wars and battles in this world.


    Shekalim 21
    a saliva in the middle of the road – we presume from a tame person, as he would not be careful and walk in the middle. on a side – from a tahor who was careful. Except during holidays – most people going to Beis Hamikdash are tahorim and go in the middle. Whoever is in a majority goes in the middle.

    – you can evaluate person’s status by where and how he walks (not judge, evaluate for halakhic decisions)
    – where majority is in masks, maskless people should walk on a side of sidewalk (or on the road?). in places where majority is maskless, masked people walk on a side. No machlokets, respect the local majority.


    Shekalim, 21
    A student asks a question, teacher ignores it. Students goes to find an answer elsewhere, gemora concerns that the teacher has inappropriate question. Turns out, the teacher is worrying about his uncertain parnasa – whether the baker will have bread for him today … a problem for some teachers …


    Yoma 9
    One should tithe demai that you get from Am Haaertz, who knows whether he did. An exception is for bakers – their business will be hurt if they give away 20%. Gemora finds ways for them to not pay:
    1) terumah? most Amei Haaertz do it – it is not much and punishment is scary
    2) maaser levi and oni? simple: put aside 10% that are in doubt between the baker and the livi/oni. Well, when ownership is in doubt, you need a proof to take it away. Meanwhile, baker can keep it.
    3) remaining – maaser sheni. previous excuses do not work. Here is Rabbis’ economic policy is spelled out: government harasses bakers forcing them to lower the prices. That is, price controls in order to make population happy – and government popular. Given this burden on businesses,
    Rabbis cancel maaser sheni. That is, lowering taxes to save businesses suffering from price controls.


    PS the sugya in gerneal is more complicated, of course – there are several places of discussion in Gemora arguing whether competition is sufficient or prices should be supervised.

    Makovi, Michael (2016) New Wine in Old Flasks: the Just Price and Price-Controls in Jewish Law addresses this and quotes Menachem Elon that quotes Yoma 9 as an example of accepted price supervision. I am a little surprised, as it seems to me that Gemora says that yes the practice is accepted by corrupt government (same one that appoints new Cohen Gadol annually), but Rabbis are trying to minimize impact.

    He also quotes: Bava Metzia 4:12,5:7, Bava Basra 89a, 91a, Yer BB 15a, SA HM 231:20,23

    Makovi also addresses whether Judaism is for capitalism or for socialism, as was recently debated here.

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