Dvar Torah Shelach — Two Paths, Two Rewards -Chofetz Chaim

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    Dvar Torah Shelach — Two Paths, Two Rewards
    אלה שמות האנשים אשר שלח משה לתור את הארץ ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע
    These are the names of the men whom Moshe sent to spy out the Land. And Moshe called Hoshe’a son of Nun “Yehoshua” (Bamidbar 13:16).
    Before sending out the Spies, Moshe davened on behalf of Yehoshua (see Rashi), that he should be saved from their counsel. If Moshe felt that the mission may not meet with success and he needed to daven for, and even change the name, of Yehoshua, why was he not equally concerned for Calev?
    The flipside of this question is that Calev went on his own to Me’aras HaMachpeilah to daven, asking that he not be enticed by the other Spies (Rashi, v.22). Why did Calev go by himself to pray at the tomb of the Patriarchs? Why was he not joined by Yehoshua?
    The Chofetz Chaim (Shemiras HaLashon: 2: Shelach, fn: “Ve’agav neva’er”) explains that when one is surrounded by people who are not on the correct path in avodas Hashem, but wishes to remain strong in his own service of Hashem, he has two viable options. One way is to fight the sinners head-on from the opening bell, saying that he disagrees with them and that everything they are doing is wrong. The other way is to be underhanded and use subterfuge, to play along and pretend he is with them. Only once they become more friendly does he reveal his true intent and feelings, telling them that they are wrong and that he never agreed with them to begin with.
    The Chofetz Chaim points out that each of these methods has maalos and chesronos, advantages and disadvantages. The pro of direct confrontation is that there is no risk of falling in with those who are straying, of being influenced by them; the person has drawn a line and staked out his position from the get-go. The con is that he may draw their ire and face consequences: financial, physical, or otherwise.
    The other style, where he plays along with the sinners, runs no risk of retribution since they think he is one of them. Additionally, since the sinners view him as a friend, at the right moment he can turn the tables on them and show them what he really thinks of them. But all the while, he runs the risk of getting too close to them, of having their crooked ideas slowly seep into him.
    The Chofetz Chaim writes that Moshe Rabbeinu saw that Yehoshua was given to one path, and that Calev was given to the other. Yehoshua was going to fight the other Meraglim right away, placing himself in immediate danger. Hence, Moshe Rabbeinu had to daven for him immediately, that Hashem save him from the counsel of the Spies and from any retribution they may visit against him. Calev, who was going to play along and, to an extent, act like one of the Spies, did not face the same danger and did not need Moshe’s tefillos before leaving.
    But once they arrived in Eretz Yisrael, the situation was different. Yehoshua, who had come out against the Meraglim right away, had no concern of being influenced by them. From the start, he was persona non grata, and thus distanced from them. Calev, though, who had been playing along with them, was in danger of falling under their influence, especially when they arrived in Chevron and saw the formidable giants who resided there. So only he needed to daven at kivrei Avos, to protect himself from the sway of the Meraglim at that point.
    This also answers another question regarding Yehoshua and Calev. At the end of the episode with the Meraglim, Hashem praised Calev and promised that his children would inherit the city of Chevron as a reward (14:24; see Rashi). Why was only Calev, and not Yehoshua, singled out for such praise, in which Hashem used the words, “eikev haysah ruach acheres imo — because a different spirit was with him”?
    As Rashi (ad loc.) explains, Calev had a different spirit; he was two-timing. He acted one way, as if he was one of the Meraglim, but in his spirit, he was not with them. He was “achas ba’peh ve’achas ba’leiv.” He said one thing with his mouth but meant another in his heart. He told the Meraglim that he agreed with them, though he really disagreed. Calev was praised for feigning complicity but all along planning to denounce the Meraglim. Then, at the right moment, he was able to reveal to all that the Meraglim had come into Eretz Yisrael with preconceived notions, that they were doing a smear-job on the Land, and that they were not to be believed.
    The Chofetz Chaim concludes that with this we can understand the Tosefta (Kerisus 4:15), which notes that at times we find Yehoshua’s name before Calev’s and at times Calev’s name comes first; this is to teach us that they were equal. The Chofetz Chaim says that though Yehoshua was, at the end of the day, superior to Calev, as Moshe taught him all his Torah and he was appointed Moshe’s successor, their approaches in this case had equal merit.
    In light of the Chofetz Chaim’s explanation, I believe we can explain a Midrash that details the differing rewards they received. The Midrash (Bamidbar Rabbah 16:9) asks: Why did Moshe add a י’ to the name of הושע, turning him into יהושע? The Midrash answers: Calev took his reward from the Land, and Yehoshua took the reward of the ten other Spies, so Moshe added a letter י’, which has the gematria of ten, to Yehoshua’s name.
    Why was Calev rewarded with a portion of Eretz Yisrael, meaning Chevron, whereas Yehoshua took the reward of the ten Meraglim?
    With the above explanation from the Chofetz Chaim, everything falls into place. Yehoshua’s main fight was against the Meraglim, so he received their reward. Calev’s main fight was not with the Meraglim; he acted like their friend. Calev was on a mission to give Eretz Yisrael the best press, to tell the Yidden how wonderful it is. As such, he received a part of the Land as his reward.

    Reb Eliezer

    In the Otzar Midrashim from Eisenstein we find under Shimon Kefa (St. Peter) was a double agent like Calev above who made it look originally that he was with Yoshka ym’s to get the Jews to follow him and then was able to encourage them from following the notzrim ym’s. He built a tower to separate himself from the group and ionly appeared once a year.

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