Thanksgiving On The First Day Of Chanukah – First Time In 125 Years – Why So Infrequent?


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menor1.jpg[by Rabbi Dovid Heber]

As many of us have already noticed, this year, Thanksgiving occurs on the first day of Chanukah. This rare event has caused much discussion and interest in the calendar. Although many of us remember Chanukah beginning during the weekend of Thanksgiving (e.g., in 1975 and 2002, Chanukah began on Friday night, the day after Thanksgiving), no one seems to remember a time when Chanukah and Thanksgiving actually coincided.

Why is this occurrence so infrequent? Chanukah usually falls in the civil calendar during the month of December. In “early years,” it begins in late November, and in “late years” it ends in early January. This year, the first day of Chanukah is on November 28th. This is an extremely early day in the solar calendar. In the 20th century, this only happened once, in 1994, when Chanukah began on Monday, November 28th. Thanksgiving that year was on the previous Thursday (see below what was special about that Chnaukah).

Thanksgiving occurs on the fourth Thursday in November. This year, it occurs on the latest day possible (under current federal law), November 28th. The combination of an early Chanukah and a late Thanksgiving means that the first day of Chanukah occurs this year on Thanksgiving.

Has a full day of Chanukah ever occurred on Thanksgiving in the past? The answer is yes. In 1861, when Thanksgiving was a holiday in many states (but not an official federal holiday), Chanukah began on Thursday, November 28th, exactly like this year.

Has Thanksgiving ever occurred on Chanukah since it became a federal holiday in 1863? The answer is yes. This is because Thanksgiving used to occur on the last Thursday in November. In the early 1940s, during World War II, the United States government changed Thanksgiving to the fourth Thursday. Under the old rule, if November 29th or 30th was on Thursday, Thanksgiving occurred on that Thursday. Under current rules, in such a case, it is a week earlier, either on Thursday, November 22nd, or Thursday, 23rd.

So, in 1899 (still under the old rules), the fourth day of Chanukah was on Thursday, November 30th, which was Thanksgiving. The first day of Chanukah was on Monday, November 27th. 125 years ago, in 1888 (also, still under the old rules), the first day of Chanukah occurred on Thursday, November 29th, which was also Thanksgiving. This was the last time Thanksgiving occurred on the first day of Chanukah.

Furthermore, in 1918, the first night of Chanukah occurred on Thursday night, November 28th, which was Thanksgiving (it would have been Thanksgiving under the new rules as well).

Will it ever happen again? Under the current calendar rules, the first day of Chanukah will never again occur on Thanksgiving. However, the first night of Chanukah is scheduled to begin on Thanksgiving on Thursday night, November 27th, 2070, and Thursday night, November 28th, 2165.

It is interesting to note that in just three years, Chanukah will swing the other direction and occur on the Civil New Year. The last day of Chanukah 5777 (3rd of Teves) will occur on New Year’s Day, 2017. This is much more frequent with at least one of the later days of Chanukah also occurring on New Year’s, 2025, 2028, 2036, and 2044. The last time this happened was 2006 and the time before that was 1987.

On the topic of New Year’s occurring on special days in the Jewish calendar, next year, the fast of Asara B’Teves 5775 will occur on New Year’s Day, 2016. The last time this happened was in 1939. It should be noted when Asara B’teves occurs on New Year’s, usually the upcoming fast of the 17th of Tamuz occurs on Independence Day. This “double scenario” happened in 1901, 1920, and 1939 and is scheduled to next occur in 2034. However, it won’t happen in 2015 because the 17th of Tamuz, July 4th is on Shabbos, so the fast is postponed until Sunday, July 5th.

Finally, as indicated above the early Chanukah of 1994 caused a different special event, the most infrequent Shemonah Esrei. This occurs on Motzoei Shabbos Chanukah that is also Rosh Chodesh Teves while we still say Vesein Bracha. In this Shemonah Esrei, we say Atah Chonantanu, Vesein Bracha, Yaaleh Veyavo and Al Hanisim. The first time this Shemonah Esrei was ever recited was in 5413/1652. Currently, it is only recited once every 95 years. It was last recited in 5660/1899 and 5755/1994, and it is scheduled to be recited next in 5849/2089.

Why is it so infrequent? First, Chanukah must begin on a Monday so that Motzei Shabbos Chanukah is Rosh Chodesh. Furthermore, the “Motzoei Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah” must occur in a year when the seventh night of Chanukah occurs before December 4th (or 5th when the following February has 29 days), so that we still say Vesein Bracha. Chanukah is typically this “early” in the secular calendar only once every 19 years. This Shemonah Esrei is said when Rosh Chodesh Teves occurs on a Motzoei Shabbos in an extremely “early” year. Rosh Chodesh Teves on Motzoei Shabbos occurs in an extremely early year only once every 95 years.

The above is based on an article written by the author in his weekly Yated column, Calendar Calculations.

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  1. “Finally, as indicated above the early Chanukah of 1994 caused a different special event, the most infrequent Shemonah Esrei. This occurs on Motzoei Shabbos Chanukah that is also Rosh Chodesh Teves while we still say Vesein Bracha. In this Shemonah Esrei, we say Atah Chonantanu, Vesein Bracha, Yaaleh Veyavo and Al Hanisim. The first time this Shemonah Esrei was ever recited was in 5413/1652.”

    I’m not sure this is correct, as the English world only adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752. Prior to 1752 the English world used the old calendar.


    to verify
    Here’s a summary of when you light Chanukah candles during the Thanksgiving dinner. If Thanksgiving falls on Kislev 24 (day before first day of Chanukah), you light one candle. If it falls on Kislev 25, you light two candles. And so forth. So using my “When-Did” tool I was able to determine how many candles to light on Thanksgiving, for all years from 1600 to the end of time (before 1600 there was no Thanksgiving).
    Light one candle on Thanksgiving: 1600, 1671, 1698, 1725, 1793, 1820, 1823, 1918, 2070, 2165
    Light two candles on Thanksgiving: 1614, 1641, 1668, 1709, 1736, 1766, 1861, 1888, 2013
    Light three candles on Thanksgiving: 1679 , 1804
    Light four candles on Thanksgiving: never
    Light five candles on Thanksgiving: 1652, 1690, 1747, 1899
    Light six, seven, or eight candles on Thanksgiving: never

  3. What an entertaining and informative article. Leaves all the “did you know chanukah and thanksgiving are on the same day this year” comments in the dust.

  4. In the year 1776, January 2nd was 10 Teves, but because of the leap year, the “significant” July 4 fell out on the 17th of Tamuz that year. The GR”A, Rav Chaim Veloziner, Rav Akiva Eiger, the Ba’al Shem Tov, the Ba’al HaTanya, the Chid”a, the Chassam Sofer (who was 14 at the time) and the Rashash were all FASTING on July 4, 1776.

    I don’t think there’s necessarily a siman of anything, but it just puts a little perspective on “our” history in relation to “their” history.

  5. Really as an orthodox Jew Thanksgiving has nothing to do with us so this info is a waste. The founding fathers of our country want to thank Hashem for the bountiful harvest; the look into the Chumash and based Thanksgiving on Succos. Since it really is a goyish holiday which includes going to church it has absolutely ans should have absolutely nothing to do with us.

  6. I’m very happy the pilgrims ate turkey. Can you imagine all the moreh heter that would go on in the MO world if the pilgrims ate PIG at their “thanksgiving?”

  7. please disregard my first comment about the research. I only skimmed the article and didn’t realize how much was actually written. it is a nice piece and I apologize for my rude comment.

  8. “Furthermore, the “Motzoei Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Chanukah” must occur in a year when the seventh night of Chanukah occurs before December 4th (or 5th when the following February has 29 days)…”
    – but when speaking of something that occurs only once in 95 years, it would be incomplete to mention only the December 4/5 criterion, which applies only to the 20th and 21st centuries. The civil year 2100 (if we’re still on that calendar by then) will be a Gregorian century year not divisible by 400, and therefore there will be an 8-year leap-year gap pushing the Julian/Shmuel computation of Sh’eilas G’shamim in Chu”L one day later. The only reason this did not occur between the 20th and 21st centuries, is that 2000 is evenly divisible by 400, and that was the first time, as the last time

  9. everyday is thanksgiving in klal yisroel

    I was once approached by 3 people-at 3 different occasions-with the same question, Each person asked me, how he can learn to stop taking things for granted & instead appreciate them & thank Hashem for everything? I then replied to each one with a different answer. The first person that approached me was in a shul, before starting Shachris. I told him, most lessons a person learns in life take weeks & months to learn but this lesson takes only one hour to learn. I then opened up a siddur to birchas Hashachar. & showed him boruch… pokeach Ivrim (blessed be Hashem for giving sight to the blind) & told him why don’t you close your eyes for one hour, just one hour & then open it up to, the world to color & beauty etc… you will not know how to thank Hashem enough. I then gave him 2 other examples. Boruch… Matir Asurim (blessed be Hashem for releasing the prisoner) & told him why don’t you lock yourself in a empty room for 1 hour?-it doesn’t need to be a prison cell it could even have a little furniture, & then come out an hour later to freedom & the world etc…. Boruch… Zokeif Kefufim (blessed be Hashem for straightening the bent) & told him why don’t you stand straight for one hour, no knuckles, elbows or knees, & then loosen yourself free. You will not know how to thank Hashem enough for giving you so much… how would a person eat & put food in his mouth without using his elbows? These are just a few examples.
    The second person approached me & I replied to him from a different perspective, I Told him if a company of 1000 employees had a policy that all employees must hand in their cell phone from 9:00am-when they arrive-until 5:00pm-when they leave-when he would get it back (at 5:00pm upon leaving) the person would not just look at his missed calls & text messages but would actually start to see the beauty of “the cell phone” & everything that it does….
    Upon the Third person approaching me-in the midst of a major snowstorm on a friday night-& asked me how will he ever make it home in such deep snow & darkness? I asked him if he knew what I think of when I see snow at night? He replied no, so I told him of the pesukim we say during maariv & in the morning of, Hashem takes light from darkness & dark from lightness. i.e. what else could light up the entire ground in the midst of darkness like snow? With Hashem deciding on each storm how big it will be & each snowflake if it will stick-to the ground-or become water in mid-air etc… BOTTOM LINE: there is always a way to look at every situation in the positive way (from a big water bill in the mail to other sad situations or any other situation a person is in.)

    Hatzlacha rabba

  10. This year there is no Shabbos Chanukah in December. Last time this happened was December 1948. But that time was because only Shabbos Chanukah of that year was in January whereas this time only Shabbos Chanukah of this year is in November.

    Also only time in our lives that Mikketz is already read in November.