Written By Moishe Lebovits – KOF-K Kosher Supervision
The time when a couple finds out that a child is on the way is a very happy time. Many different halachos apply to an expecting mother, along with many segulos. These items and many others will be discussed in this issue.
Davening for the Child
The Mishnah in Mesechtas Berochos says one who davens to have a specific gender has davened an invalid tefilla. The Gemorah explains that this is only after forty days from when the child was conceived. The first three days one should daven that the seed should not spoil. From the third day until the fortieth day one should daven for a boy. From forty days until three months one should daven that the child should be of normal shape. From three months to six months that the fetus should survive. From six months to nine months one should daven that the child should come out healthy. The Elya Rabbah says one should daven that the child should be a G-D fearing person and a big ba’al middos. A woman who does not have any children should say the haftora of the first day of Rosh Hashanah after she lights candles on Shabbos.
Informing People of the Pregnancy
Some feel that it is better to refrain from telling people that his wife is expecting because it might cause one to give an ayin hara. The time of when to tell relatives that one is pregnant is up to the husband and wife, and many times it is told very early. Some say the relatives should not find out before she begins to show that she is carrying a baby. However, this does not apply to parents or in-laws. If one is asked if she is expecting and does not want to tell others she may say I do not know.
Discussing the Name
The naming of a child should not bring any type of machlokes into the family because it is a danger to the child. Although according to the basic premise of the law, there is no concern with discussing the name beforehand, nonetheless, the custom is that one should not discuss the name with family members before the name is actually given. Some say the reason is because giving a name is a time when a parent has ruach hakodesh and that is given either at the time of the bris or when one names a girl at krias ha’Torah. There is a discussion in the poskim if one is permitted to write the child’s name on the birth certificate prior to giving the child his /her name.
Some say one is permitted to discuss names with ones parents during the pregnancy.
Finding out the Gender
A woman is permitted to allow doctors to take sonograms throughout her pregnancy. During the procedure the gender of the child becomes known to the doctor. The question arises if one is permitted to ask the doctor the gender. Some poskim are of the opinion that one should not ask the gender of the fetus due to the fact that one loses out on two advantages. One is the excitement and the other is that “beracha is only found on something that is hidden from the eye,” and therefore if there is problem with the child it will not be able to be changed. However, some have the practice to find out the gender.
One who wishes to find out the gender should consult with their own Rav.
Going to the Doctor with ones Wife
Although one should be careful about the halachos of yichud when using a male doctor, there does not seem to be a reason why a man has to go with his wife to the doctor for every visit. Nonetheless, if ones wife insists then one should not refrain.
Whether or not one may buy items for an unborn child is dependent on ones hergesh. If one feels that by doing so it may cause ayin hara then one should not buy anything. Some poskim permit one (even with concern of ayin hara) to go window shopping during the pregnancy.
Throwing up Food
Many pregnant women experience nauseness throughout their pregnancy and due to it will vomit. The question is if a beracha achrona is required in such a situation. There is a general machlokes if a beracha achrona is said on the enjoyment of the throat or the stomach. When one throws up, ones stomach does not have benefit from the food and no beracha achrona would be required. L’maseh, one who ate food and threw it up within a few minutes is not obligated to make a beracha achrona. If, however, the food remained in the stomach for a while before it was thrown up, a beracha achrona should still be recited. The same would apply to bentching.
It is quoted in the name of Horav Meir M’Parmishlan that if a pregnant woman recites birchos hamapil it is a segula not to miscarry.
What to Do With Nails after Cutting
The Gemorah says that if a pregnant lady steps on nails after being cut she may loose her child that she is carrying. One of the reasons given is, before Adom sinned his body was covered with a layer of nails. After he sinned the nails only remained on top of the fingers. Since a lady caused the sin of the eitz hadas that in turned caused the removal of nails from the body, women are punished because of it. Based on the aforementioned if one burns the nails he is considered a chassid. If the nails are buried he is considered a tzaddik, and if the nails are thrown in a place where they will be stepped on he is a wicked person. Men should also refrain from stepping on nails. Toenails should also not be thrown and they should be dealt with like fingernails. Stepping on nails of a non-Jew should no be done.
Throwing Nails in a Place Where There Are No Women
The Gemorah states that throwing nails in a place where women do not frequent is permitted; for example, in a bais medrash or a men’s mikvah. Others say that al pi kabbalah, since there are other reasons not to walk on nails besides for the danger to a pregnant woman, they should not be thrown in a bais medrash, etc. Although many people are noheg to act in accordance with the second opinion, al pi din one may be lenient.
Flushing Them Down the Toilet
According to some poskim, flushing ones nails down the toilet has the same status as if one burnt his nails. Therefore, one who does this is a called a chassid. Some are careful to burn their nails and not flush them down the toilet. It would seem that placing the nails in the sink, would also be like flushing them down the toilet, if the water is left running for a few minutes.
Sweeping the Area Where the Nails Fell
The Gemorah says if nails fall to the floor, and then are swept to a different area, there is no danger in stepping on those nails. Some are of the opinion that sweeping them into a different room will help to avoid any danger. When women go for a manicure, there are usually nails spread all over the floor. To avoid stepping on the nails, the nails should be swept to a different area in the same room (this is even if the nails are from non-Jews).
It is stated from Harav Elimelech M’Lishintzik zt”l that a woman who eats melava malka every Motzei Shabbos throughout her pregnancy, will merit easy childbirth.
A pregnant or nursing woman who is in pain does not have to fast. In regard to this halacha a pregnant woman is someone who one can tell is carrying a child in her womb. Some say after forty days of pregnancy a woman is considered pregnant for this halacha. Less than this amount of time she is only exempt if she is in a lot of pain. Some say a woman who is capable of nursing does not have to fast for twenty four months even if she does not actually nurse. A woman who is within thirty days of giving birth does not have to fast. These aforementioned halachos do not apply to Tisha B’av and Yom Kippur. Many say that a pregnant woman does not have to fast on Tannis Esther.
On Tisha B’av one is supposed to feel pain over the loss of the Bais Hamikdosh. When one sleeps, the custom is to refrain from certain pleasure on Tisha B’av. Therefore, one who normally sleeps with one pillow during the year should not sleep with any pillows on Tisha B’av. One who normally sleeps with two pillows may sleep with one pillow. A weak or old person does not have to be stringent. Some have the custom to place stones under their head and sleep in that manner. These halachos only apply to someone who is sleeping at night. However, one who sleeps on Tisha B’av by day may use the amount of pillows that he is accustomed to.
A pregnant woman who wants to sleep with a pillow on the night of Tisha B’av may do so.
Visiting a Cemetery / Going to a Levaya
Some poskim feel that a pregnant woman should not go to a cemetery. Others say since this custom is not mentioned in Gemorah or Rishonim a pregnant woman may indeed go to a cemetery. A pregnant woman may attend a cemetery on a yartzeit even according to those who are normally stringent in this matter. Some say that a pregnant woman should avoid going to a levaya if they will enter the funeral home.
Visiting a Zoo
There are two minhagim concerning kaparos on behalf of a pregnant woman. Many poskim are of the opinion that the correct procedure is to take a rooster and two hens. Others say one should take one rooster and one hen. The minhag seems to be that one should take one rooster and one hen. A woman who finds out she is pregnant and it is before forty days, does not do a kapara for the fetus. (One should take a chicken and do a kapara for a young child even if he is too young to understand what is going on).
Eating a Pitum – Eating Esrog Jam
Many seforim say that a segula for a woman to have an easy labor is for her to bite off the pitum of the esrog on Hashanah Rabbah. The reason why this is done is because some say that the eitz hadas was an esrog tree. Therefore, by biting the pitum the woman shows that even though Chavah ate from the eitz hadas (i.e. the esrog) she herself had refrained from eating the esrog until after Yom Tov. In this zechus Hashem should accept my tefillas. Some have the custom that a pregnant woman should eat esrog jam on Tu B’shevat as a segula for easy labor.
A pregnant woman should be very careful with the three main mitzvos which were given to her, which are hafrashas challah, niddah, and lighting candles.
Refraining from Harmful things
Eating Good Things
The Gemorah in Kesubos says if a woman eats an esrog she will have good smelling children. If she eats eggs she will have children with big eyes, eating meat will make her children strong, and eating fish will make her children have chein. The Chazzon Ish zt”l would advise pregnant women to eat vitamin E for ailing pains in the feet.
Kevater at a Bris
Walking Down the Aisle
A pregnant woman who is “showing” should not walk down the aisle at a wedding.
Segulos not to miscarry the fetus
Some say if a pregnant woman wants to avoid a miscarriage she should place the mantel or the gartel of the sefer Torah on her and wear it constantly.
The Shulchan Aruch says a woman should wear a tekumah stone or the counterweight of the stone around her neck to protect her from miscarrying. Some women wear a ruby stone today for this purpose. On Shabbos it is permitted to walk outside wearing this stone even in a place that does not have an eiruv.
The Ninth Month
Some say when a pregnant woman enters her ninth month she should daven that the baby should not be born on Shabbos, since in this way she will avoid chilul Shabbos.
Opening the Aaron Kodesh
During the ninth month of pregnancy the husband is honored with opening the aaron kodesh before laining. Some say this should only be done near the end of the ninth month since one does not want the child to be born early.
Going to the Mikvah
In some communities a woman in her ninth month immerses in a mikvah. A doctor should be consulted to ascertain if it is medically permitted. There is no beracha or preparations needed before the tevilah. Others never heard of this custom.
Some have the custom to check the mezuzahs in one’s home during the ninth month of pregnancy, especially in the mother’s bedroom.
The question of whether a woman should induce her labor is a very serious question. Many times one wants to induce labor because it is more convenient to have the child on a specific day. Harav Moshe Feinstein zt”l holds that one may not induce labor unless it is medically necessary. One should consult their Rav regarding this issue.
Husband Present during the Delivery
The opinion of the poskim is that the husband should not attend the actual delivery. However, if the husband will stand behind a curtain and not look at the delivery then if the wife wants, the husband may stay there and recite tefillas.
Segulos during the Delivery
Tehillim at Night
The Medrash says that Moshe Rabbeinu knew it was day when Hashem taught him Mikra and knew it was night when Hashem taught him Mishnah and Gemorah. Some say we see from here that one should not read mikra at night. Additionally, based on the writings of kabbalah, one should not say mikra at night. One who does read mikra at night did not do any issur. Some say the reason is because learning mikra at night awakens the midah of din. If one read the posukim with a targum this inyun does not apply.
During labor a woman is permitted to say tehillim even if it is at night or on Shabbos since it is a time of danger.
Watching a New Mother (Yoledes)
The Gemorah in Berochos writes that three people need to be watched, and one of them is a woman who just gave birth. This is codified in the poskim as well. The reason for the watching is because of mazikim, and is needed even by day.
Some say the woman needs to be watched for four weeks, while others say the shemirah can be for three or seven days (this is before the devar mitzvah or davar sh’bekedusha was done). The custom seems to be if she is in the house and not going in the street she does not need a shomer.
Halachically Speaking volumes 1-4 are available at your local seforim store or at israelbookshoppublications.com
 60a. Refer to Rosh 9:17, Shulchan Aruch 230:1, Mishnah Berurah 230:1, Aruch Ha’shulchan 230:3
 Taamei Haminhagim page 576, see Magen Avraham 263:11, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 75:2.
 Rabbi Webster Shlita in his book on Pregnancy and Childbirth pages 165:footnote 2.
 Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l says the reason why not to tell people so early is because of a concern of miscarriage and it would be every uncomfortable to tell people about the miscarriage (Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita). This would not apply after the third month.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita.
 Opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita.
 Emes Koneh page 49:footnote 26, V’ein Lumo Michshal 2:psge 71. This is based on the Gemorah in Bava Metziah 23b that due to tznius one can avoid telling the truth, see Shulchan Aruch C.M. 262:21, Ashrei Yeladito page 30.
 Yosef Ometz page 362, Reishis Chuchma shar kedusha 2:16:page 297 (new), Tziporon Shmeir 186, Kaf Ha’chaim Y.D. 116:107, Zocher Habris page 146:21, Keroei Shmo page 100, Sefer Habris Page 320:28.
 Refer to Teshuvos V’hanhugos 3:297, Keser Shem Tov 1:4:6:page 57, Keroei Shmo pages 65 quoting the opinion of Harav Elyashiv Shlita, and page 348, Ziv Hashe’mos 2:1. The minhag is that a husband and wife discuss what name to give before the child is born. (V’elah Sh’mos page 117).
 Refer to Avnei Yushfei 1:196:6, see V’elah Sh’mos page 177 quoting the opinion of Harav Chaim Kanievesky Shlita.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita and others are lenient. Refer to Igros Moshe E.H. 3:35, E.H. 4:102, Otzer Habris 1:page 329, Keroei Shmo pages 65-66, Ziv Hashe’mos 2:2. It makes no difference if one writes the Jewish name or the English name on the birth certificate (Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita).
 Opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita).
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Gemorah Taanis 8b, Tosfas “elah,” Sefas Emes Tannis 8b:page 218 (new), Bava Metzia 42a, Maharsha page 14, Rabbeinu B’Chai Ki Sisa pages 311- 312 (Kook), Nachlas Moshe page 292, Otzer Meforshei Hatalmud pages 848-849, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 230:2, Aruch Ha’shulchan 230:5, Piskei Teshuvos 230:3, Mishchas Shemen 3:35). The opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita is not to find out the gender. This is the opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l as well (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita).
 Refer to Medrash Rabbah Koheles 11:5 (new print), Bereishis Rabbah 65:12, Shevet Ha’Kehusi 1:317:8, Sheilas Rav 1:page 63:2, Vealihu Lo Yeibol 2:page 173:35-36, V’ein Lumo Michshal 5:page 179:5, Kovetz Bais Hillel 13:page 90-91, Oleinu L’shabe’ach 5:page 447. In some seforim it is brought down that one is able to find out what a pregnant woman is having by asking her the following: Tell her to show you her hand, if she sticks out her hand with the palm on the inside (top of the hand) it is a boy; if she shows you her palm then it is a girl (Segulas Yisroel (mem) page 207:69 (new print).
 Refer to Shevet Ha’Levi 4:167.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita.
 Harav Yisoel Belsky Shlita, see Shulchan Aruch Hamikutzar 4:page 319:19:footnote 58, V’ein Lumo Michshal 2:page 322, Asei Lucha Rav 6:pages 300-302, Bais Hayehudi 10:page 170. This is the opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita.
 Opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita). One may even show her husband which colors she prefers to buy later on.
 Refer to Rosh Mesechtas Berochos 2:6, Rambam Hilchos Machalus Asuros 14:3, Magen Avraham 210:9, Pischei Halacha (Berochos) 4:footnote 20, Vezos Ha’beracha page 113.
 Refer to Sharei Teshuva 204:17, Panim M’eros 2:27, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 50:8.
 Refer to Ashrei Yiladito pages 182-183 in depth. See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:15, Har Tzvi O.C. 163, Shevet Ha’Levi 1:205:208, 6:21:4.
 Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:198.
 Niddah 17a, Moed Katton 18a, see Avudraham page 369, Tosfas Shabbos 2, Magen Avraham beg. of 260, Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham, Machtzis Ha’shekel, Mishnah Berurah 6, Aruch Ha’shulchan 6, Shemiras Haguf V’hanefesh 68:footnote 15 in depth, Shar Naftali pages 155-116, Pnei Shabbos pages 86-88, see Rivevos Ephraim 8:88:1 who says that this applies to stepping on ladies nails as well.
 Be’er Heitiv 2, Eliyahu Rabbah 7, Eishel Avraham ibid, Tamei Haminhagim 254:page 121, Tzeporon Shel Rishonim page 300:footnote 191. Refer to Nimukei Yosef Moed Katton ibid.
 Refer to Tosfas Niddah 17a “sorfon”, Tamei Haminhagim ibid.
 Ran Moed Katton 18a.
 Refer to Maharal Be’er Hagolah be’er sheini 30a, Shulchan Hatohar (Karmarna) 260:9. The Chesed Yehoshua 1:16 discusses the practice of women getting manicures etc. and the goyim do not burn the nails. Refer to Rivevos Ephraim 4:97:41.
 Horav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Lekutei Maharich 2:page 5b, Peros Hanosherim 19:pages 365-367.
 Prisha 241, Pela Yoetz ibid, Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 2:14.
 Sheilas Rav 1:12:8. He also mentions (7) that a lady should refrain from stepping on her own nails. Refer to Toras Hayoledes 60:footnote 9 whether a lady may step on a nail in order to perform a mitzvah.
 Moed Katton ibid.
 Gemorah Moed Katton ibid, Avudraham page 369, Prisha 241, Machtzis Ha’shekel, Tosfas Shabbos 2, Mishnah Berurah ibid, Aruch Ha’ Shulchan 6. Refer to Yayin Hatov 8: in the footnote.
 Peros Hanosherim 19 in depth, see Lekutei Maharich 2:page 5b.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 19:footnote 2.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Shemiras Haguf V’hanefesh 68:footnote 15, Betzel Hachuchma 2:35, Be’er Moshe 6:133, Chessed Yehoshua ibid, Divrei Shalom 3:67, Chut Shuni 1:page 62, Shevet Ha’kehusi 2:105. Refer to Peros Hanosherim 20 pages 368-371 in depth. The T’ama D’kra hanhugos from the Chazzon Ish (9) says that the Chazzon Ish zt”l burnt his nails. The Stiepler zt”l did not let people burn the nails in the toilet (Orchos Rabbeinu 1:page 104:21).
 Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 2:14, Darchei Chaim V’Sholom 353, Chesed Yehoshua ibid, Orchos Rabbeinu ibid. Refer to Tuvecha Yabeu 2:page 293 who says that the Chazzon Ish zt”l used to burn his nails together with the chometz. Harav Elyashiv Shlita burns them on the range every Friday. (Refer to Hanhugos of the Chazzon Ish 13:31).
 Moed Katton ibid, see Prisha ibid, Machtzis Ha’shekel, Machzik Beracha 260:7, Aruch Ha’shulchan ibid.
 Elya Rabbah 7, Mishnah Berurah 6.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita. The Chesed Yehoshua 1:16 discusses the practice of women getting manicures etc. and the goyim do not burn the nails. Refer to Rivevos Ephraim 4:97:41.
 Orchos Chaim 2, Minchas Shabbos hashmutos to 90:30, Kaf Ha’chaim 4, Taamei Haminhagim pages 190 and page 568, Ashrei Yiladito page 30, Toras Hayoledes page 256, Minhag Yisroel Torah page 131.
 Some say today, women who are pregnant or nursing do not fast whether they are in pain or not (Yechaveh Da’as 1:35).
 Rama 550:1, Shulchan Aruch 554:5, Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 550:1, Aruch Ha’shulchan 3, Vayivorech Dovid 1:63. This means they do not have to start fasting, and then stop if they cannot do it, but they should estimate before the fast if they will be in pain (Orchos Chaim Spinka 550:3).
 M’or V’ketziah 550:page 147, Moed Lechol Chai 9:14, Mishnah Berurah 550:3, Aruch Ha’shulchan 5.
 Mishnah Berurah ibid, Aruch Ha’shulchan ibid.
 Mishnah Berurah ibid, Aruch Ha’shulchan ibid.
 Da’as Torah 550, see Yechaveh Da’as 1:35, Avnei Yushfei 1:115. Refer to Ohr L’tzyion 3:25:7 who argues.
 Eishel Avraham Butchatch 550:1, Orchos Chaim (Spinka) 550:4, Ohr L’tzyion 3:25:7.
 Shulchan Aruch 554:5, Aruch Ha’shulchan 7.
 Refer to Toras Hayoledes 47:footnote 5, see Rama O.C. 686:2, Levush 2, Aruch Ha’shulchan 686:4.
 Some say it is only a chumra (Moadim V’zemanim 5:342). The opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l was to be lenient (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Do Webster).
 Rama 555:2, Aruch Ha’shulchan 3, Kaf Ha’chaim 555:10, Moadim V’zemanim 5:342.
 Mishnah Berurah 6-7, Shar Ha’tzyion 5.
 Shulchan Aruch 555:2. Refer to Shevet Ha’kehsui 2:191:3, Orchos Rabbeinu 2:page 138:8.
 Shevet Ha’kehusi 2:191:3.
 Refer to Rama 555:2, Aruch Ha’shulchan Y.D. 287:3.
 Emes L’Yaakov Y.D. 361:3:footnote 221, Minchas Yitzchok 10:42:2, Vayivorech Dovid 2:page 229, Halichos Bas Yisroel 13:18. Refer to Sogu B’shoshanim 40:6. The opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l was to be stringent (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita).
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Shevet Ha’kehusi 3:296, Opinion of Harav Sheinberg Shlita quoted in Yad L’yoledes 15:footnote 25, Ashrei Yiladito page 36:27, Boneh Beischa page 333:footnote 7 in depth, see Mitzvahs Hanashim 49:1:footnote 2. In regard to an Eishes Kohen refer to Magen Avraham O.C. 433:2, Birchei Yosef 4, Mishnah Berurah 3, Minchas Yitzchok 10:42:2, Shevet Ha’kehusi 6:171.
 Shevet Ha’kehusi 3:296, Vayivorech Dovid 2:pages 229-230. In regard to a niddah going to daven at the Kosel Hamaravi refer to Shevet Ha’kehusi 3:47.
 Opinion of the Bais Avi quoted in Rabbi Webster on Pregnancy and Childbirth (Hebrew section) page 9:8.
 Migdal Oz chalon tzurey 32, opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita).
 Bunei Beischa page 332, opinion of Harav Felder Shlita, see Ashrei Yiladito page 31:footnote 25 who is lenient.
 Pri Megadim Eishel Avraham 2, Ely Rabbah 7, Shulchan Aruch Harav 3, Matei Ephraim 2, Mishnah Berurah 2. Refer to Da’as Torah 605:1, Moadim V’zemanim 1:52, Sharei Halacha V’minhag 2:page 215. Some places do not let women do kaparos and this is incorrect (Katzei Hamatei 605:3).
 Rama ibid, Chai Adom ibid, Mishnah Berurah 3, Aruch Ha’shulchan 3, see Matei Ephraim 2.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, see Otzer Habris 1:2:2 quoting the opinion of Rav Elyashiv Shlita. Refer to Moadim V’zemanim 1:52:footnote 1, Mikadesh Yisroel 253, Sheilas Rav 1:12:4. Refer to Shevet Ha’kehusi 2:198 who maintains that one should do kaparos for a fetus under forty days old. If one did kaparos for a fetus a couple of days before Yom Kippur and now the baby was born before Yom Kippur there is no need to perform another kapara (Shevet Ha’kehusi 2:199).
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita.
 Taamei Haminhagim page 521, Yufei Leleiv 2:664:15, Segulas Yisroel mem 67:page 206, Lekutei Maharich 3:page 697 (new), see Darchei Chaim V’sholom 796, Minchas Elazar 5:36 who questions this custom.
 Moed Lechol Chai 24:25. Refer to Bunei Beischa pages 335:footnote 1.
 Elef Hamugen 660:6:page 356, Ashrei Yiladito page 45.
 Mesechtas Shabbos 23b.
 Bunei Beischa page 332:7.
 Shevet Mussar 24, see Rabbi Webster Shlita in his book on Pregnancy and Childbirth page 167:footnote 10:1. Refer to Segulas Yisroel mem 70:page 207 (new print). See Vein Lumo Michshal 1:page 63. Many times a pregnant woman wants a specific food which may sound like an odd request. However, one should give her what she wants because some say if she does not get the food she wants a spot of the food will appear on the child (Refer to Shulchan Aruch 617:2, Chukei Nashim 57:page 235).
 Orchos Rabbeinu 1:page 346:3, see page 355:13.
 Os Chaim V’sholom 265:24, Ashrei Yiladito page 36. Refer to Zera Yaakov 25:page 147:footnote 38-39.
 Be’er Moshe 3:184:4, Bunei Beischa page 335:footnote 1 quoting the opinion of the author of the Minchas Elazar, Opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita. Refer to Rabbi Webster Shlita in his book on Pregnancy and Childbirth page 170 where the Stiepler zt”l is quoted as not being concerned with this.
 Refer to Be’er Moshe 3:184:4. See Shulchan Haezer 7:4:1:page 31, Shemiras Haguf V’hanefesh 152:footnote 1, Chazzon Yeshaya page 247. This is the opinion of Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l (as related by Rabbi Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita).
 Refer to Taz Y.D. 179:8, Pischei Teshuva 6, Segulas Yisroel page 268:68 (new), Bunei Beischa page 336.
 O.C. 303:24, Aruch Ha’shulchan 29.
 Rashi Mesechtas Shabbos 66b “e’ven.”
 Rabbeinu B’Chai Parshas Tetzaveh 28:15:page 238 (Blum).
 Mishnah Berurah 303:77.
 Sefer Chassidim 793. Others say to avoid this, since if one is supposed to give birth on Shabbos it is the right time (Kaf Ha’chaim Palagi 27:25).
 Yosef Ometz 57 (Chidah), Moreh B’etzbah 3:90, Rabbi Webster Shlita in his book on Pregnancy and Childbirth page 173:footnote 30.
 Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita. Harav Tuvia Goldstein zt”l held that once is enough but the custom is to do it the whole ninth month (as related by Harav Yisroel Dov Webster Shlita).
 Ashrei Yiladito page 81, Bunei Beischa page 340:22. Only one immersion is necessary.
 Opinion of the Satmar Rebbe zt”l quoted in Ashrei Yiladito page 181:footnote 12. See Bunei Beischa 33:22.
 Refer to Rabbi Webster on Pregancy and Childbirth page 174:3.
 Igros Moshe Y.D. 2:74, O.C. 4:105:6. Refer to Shevet Ha’Levi Y.D. 6:128, Orchos Rabbeinu 1:page 357:64, K’rayna D’igrisa 1:184, Bunei Beischa page 337:footnote 2, Opinion of Harav Yisroel Belsky Shlita, Opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita. Refer to Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society 5:pages 84-90.
 Refer to Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:862, Shraga Hameir 4:30, Shiurei Shevet Ha’Levi (Niddah) 195:7:page 265.
 Igros Moshe Y.D. 2:75, Opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita. Refer to Minchas Yitzchok 8:30:2:page 64, Binei Bonim 1:33, Asei Lecha Rav 4:58. See Rabbi Webster in his book on Pregnancy and Childbirth (Hebrew section) pages 10-11. As far as the husband holding his wife’s hand during delivery in an extraordinary situation see Minchas Yitchok 5:27, Rabbi Webster on Pregnancy and Childbirth (Hebrew section) pages 11-12. See Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society 2:pages 107-122 in great depth.
 Refer to Ginzei Hakodesh 3:15, see Shevet Ha’Levi 6:162:2. Some are not sure where this custom came from (Rabbi Webster on Pregancy and Childbirth page 176:footnote 48).
 Divrei Malkiel 5:166.
 Medrash Tanchuma Ki Sisa 36:page 591 (new, see Tanei D’bei Eliyahu 2:16.
 Refer to Rosh to Rosh Hashanah 4:14, Shemiras Haguf V’hanefesh 84:1-6 in depth.
 Be’er Heitiv 238:2, Ben Ish Chai Pekudei 1:7, Birchei Yosef 238:2, Kaf Ha’chaim 237:9. One can think about mikra at night (Shevet Ha’kehusi 6:141).
 Shar Ha’tzyion 238:1, Betzel Hachuchma 4:44.
 Ben Ish Chai Pekudei 1:7, Lekutei Maharich 1:page 287 (new), Betzel Hachuchma 4:44.
 Birchei Yosef 238:2, Yesod V’shoresh Hu’avodah 6:2, Lekutei Maharich ibid, Da’as Torah 238:2, Yabea Omer 6:30.
 Eishel Avraham Butchatch 238, Yosef Ometz 54, Masef Lechul Hamachanus 1:38, Tzitz Eliezer 8:2, Betzel Hachuchma 4:45, Orchos Rabbeinu 1:page 97:131. Refer to Medrash Rabbah Bereishis 68:11. In regard to saying tehillim for a choleh see Betzel Hachuchma 4:47, Halichos Shlomo Tefilla 8:17:footnote 22.
 Ben Ish Chai ibid, Lekutei Maharich 1:page 287 (new), Levushei Mordechai O.C. 2:186, Be’er Moshe 4:22, Doleh U’mashka page 139, See Nemukei Orach Chaim 238, Divrei Yatziv Y.D. 136.
 Refer to Rabbi Webster in his book on Pregnancy and Childbirth page 59:46.
 54b, Aruch Ha’shulchan E.H. 64:3, Shemiras Haguf V’hanefesh 180:1. The sefer Matamim 2:2 (zocher v’nikeiva) says more watching is needed for a boy than a girl.
 Magen Avraham O.C. 239:7, Mishnah Berurah 9. In regards to hanging up a tefillah in the house against evil spirits, see Ohr Yisroel page 295:12, Otzer Minhagei Yeshurun 27:1, Minhagei Chasam Sofer 13:9, Shraga Hameir 6:130, Chai Halevi 2:54.
 Mesechtas Berochos ibid. See Taamei Haminhagim page 549:182. This is even for a second (Yosef Ometz page 351). Some say the reason for the shemirah is because she is in a lot of pain and there is a concern that she will put herself in danger (Sefer Matamim 2:page 44:6).
 Segulas Yisroel mareches yud 6:page 140 (new).
 Betzel Hachuchma 6:78. See Divrei Shalom 4:152.
 Boneh Beischa page 352:footnote 3.
 Maharshal 45. See Shevet Ha’kehusi 4:322 who says watching her for seven days is fine.
 Boneh Beischa ibid:footnote 4.
 Opinion of Harav Shmuel Felder Shlita. See Piskei Teshuvos 239:footnote 71, V’ein Lamo Michshal 4:pages 109-110.